Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Alexander Johnson Is Worship Buddhist? The most important thing about spirituality is that everyone has a unique experience with it. That being said, nobody has the right to say what is and what is not someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s belief system. Then we come to the case of Buddhism, where the initial teachings have evolved over the course of its history, and the question of being Buddhist becomes even more muddied.There are several works, claiming words directly from the mouth of Buddha, which describe methods of worship that will grant a worshipper great amounts of spiritual merit, such as presenting gifts or creating extravagant places of worship, which promise a better reincarnation or other good fortune. When one examines who stands to gain from such actions, however, it is fairly evident that whowever controls the fate of such sacrifices and work has much to gain indeed. This may be necessary for the survival of the religion and better for the entire community, but is not in of itself Buddhist.Then there are other Buddhist works which seem to directly contradict aspects of such worship. One central theme in the teachings is to avoid attachment to physical things; a ritual such as bathing a stone image daily or building a jewel encrusted shrine clearly opposes that idea. For one to attach oneself to even the attribute of being Buddhist is unbecoming of the purest practitioner. For nearly all things, and especially with spiritual practice, there is no black and white, merely shades of grey. Worship, along with all things, is subject to interpretation.
When Southwest Airlines wants to hire employees, they tend to have 142,000 applicants. They obviously want to choose the person who will suit their organizational culture the best. To achieve this objective they need to ask the right questions when interviewing the applicants. These questions should be such that they provide a clear picture as to which applicant will be best for the job and the organization as a whole. You can use behavioral-based job interview questions to help you select superior candidates. Ask interview questions that help you identify whether the candidate has the behaviors, skills, and experience needed for the job you are filling. (Top job interview questions to help you select the Best, Susan M. Heathfield) Before starting the interview the interviewer should describe the essential functions of the job and ask the interviewee if he can perform those functions with or without accommodations. (http://www. alllaw. com/articles/employment/article13. asp) The first competency question should be related to the ability to recruit and interview applicants, Ã¢â¬Ëhow often during your last job did you need to interview applicants and describe a situation in which the first impression of the applicant could have altered your judgment. Ã¢â¬â¢ Through this question the interviewer may get an idea of the prejudices the person might or might not hold. Southwest Airlines need to make sure that their employees do not discriminate against certain races and are able to handle all sorts of situations hands on. The second question is related to the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perform reference checks on potential employees. Ã¢â¬ËWhen a former employer was not willing to provide information about a potential employee, how did you handle the situation and perform the necessary reference check? Ã¢â¬â¢ this question will help the Airlines figure out if the employee is responsible enough to go through the necessary procedure or would overlook some things and carry on. The third question is about the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to plan and conduct regularly scheduled organizational orientation programs. Tell me about an incidence where last minute changes were made in the orientation plan, these changes were not known to you. How did you cope with these lat minute changes? Ã¢â¬â¢ this question will help identify the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities in a chaotic situation. For airlines these situations are quite common and such a characteristic will be beneficial for the organization. The fourth question is connected with the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to prepare and explain HR policies and procedures. Ã¢â¬ËTell me about a situation where there was a revision in the company policy and the employees did not take the change well. What did you do? This will help the employer or interviewer for Southwest Airlines find out the opinion of the employee about some policies and procedures that may be adopted by the company or already exist within the company. The fifth question is about the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to develop and maintain up-to-date job descriptions. Ã¢â¬ËHow many job descriptions have you developed in your time as an employee here at Southwest and what were some of the major difficulties you faced while carrying out your work? Ã¢â¬â¢ this question will help understand if the employee will be able to assess the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities and send him to the department that suits him best. The sixth question for the employee should be based on his ability to administer a compensation program and monitor salary increase recommendations to ensure compliance with merit increase guidelines. The question here will be, Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is your view on performance appraisals, are they necessary or not, do they motivate employees to do better on the job? Ã¢â¬â¢ This question will help understand what the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s are expecting and what benefits they want for the jobs they perform on a weekly or daily basis. By asking these questions from the existing employees, the top management at Southwest Airlines will know the sort of employees who will be screened out from the 142,000 applicants. The number of employees they actually need is 4000, thus the company needs to be careful as to who they hire and retain. By interviewing the interviewers beforehand the organization is making sure they hire the right people. Also, when your interview questions ask the applicant to tell you about behaviors and actions she has actually demonstrated in the past, your selection process will improve.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The first step in getting fit is commitment. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not only the hardest step; itÃ¢â¬â¢s also the most important. You have to be committed to everything you do if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t then you end up giving up. So you have to be committed to losing weight and if you are you will get results. People all the time have attempted to be more fit, but have lack of commitment so their result is nothing. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t stress this enough if you want to be fit the first step has to be commitment. Step two in becoming physically fit is finding a good workout plan that is best for you. Not everyone is the same, people are different, and so itÃ¢â¬â¢s only logical that they have different exercise plans too. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t start off doing weight that youÃ¢â¬â¢re not comfortable with, or even with running donÃ¢â¬â¢t start sprinting. Start slow and work your way up to what youÃ¢â¬â¢re capable of doing then keep doing it. Also knowing what youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to accomplish in physical fitness has a factor in helping you come up with your work out plan. Step three in becoming physically fit is eating healthy. Eating healthier is a major when it comes to physical fitness because your body has to be able to keep up with you when you push yourself. Another issue in this world is people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t eating right, and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re eating habits are bad. Coming up with a diet is a great way to organize everything so you have no issues with your eating habits and knowing what you can and canÃ¢â¬â¢t eat. If you eat healthier it will improve your physical fitness, because youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have more energy to do activities. Being active every day is healthy and can change your life. If you want to be more fit it all starts with commitment, because you have to be committed to change for you to make that change happen. Not all people are the same, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the truth you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t capable of doing things others can but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean youÃ¢â¬â¢re lower than them. Start off slow and work up to be the best that you can be, and never give up. Come up with your own work out plan that best fits you. Having your own work out plan will help you with knowing what you have to do every day. Eat healthy, come up with a diet that you can work with, quit the junk food and bad habits so you feel like a better person and have more energy. All these steps will help you to be physically fit.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Plato's Academy - Essay Example Although Plato did deliver his lectures there, "the metaphysical theories of the director [Plato] were not in any way 'official' and the formal instruction in the Academy was restricted to mathematics" (Chermiss 1980, p.18). In other words, the Academy was an association of highly educated people engaged in independent research and studies. As the founding father of the Academy, Plato became its first Head (scholarch) and remained at this position for forty years. Plato's immediate successor as the Head of the Academy was his 40-year old nephew Speusippus (347-339 BC) who, after his uncle's death in 347BC, remained scholarch for the next eight years. According to his contemporaries, Speusippus was a proliferate writer who produced many works written in the form of treatise and dialogues. Unfortunately, we have only few of the texts attributed to him: the information on Speusippus ideas and doctrines is primarily retrieved from third party sources (Dilon 2003). The scarce information available these days makes it clear that despite his familial connection with Plato, Speusippus could barely be named as the continuator of his uncle's major ideas. In particular, Speusippus rejected the famous Theory of Forms developed by Plato during his years at the Academy. Besides, Speusippus believed that the Good was secondary while Plato maintained the Good was ultimately primary. Also, Speusippus claimed it was not possible to have comprehensive knowledge of any thing without understanding of the properties that distinguish this thing from other things. These views differed substantially from the principles argued by Plato in his broad philosophic doctrine. And only in his works dedicated to ethics, Speusippus abided by the views similar to those of Plato: he further elaborated Plato's ideas of citizenship, justice and legislation as well as opposed the hedonistic theory of the value of life proposed by Aristippus of Cyrene, founder of the Cyrenaic sc hool. Speusippus also studied the science of numbers and, contrary to Plato, rejected the theory of ideal numbers (the Platonic Forms of numbers) which further led him to rejection of the Platonic concept of ideas in general (Smith 2007, III, pp. 893-894). In 339BC, Xenocrates of Chalcedon, a renowned philosopher and mathematician, became the next scholarch of the Academy. Xenocrates did abide by the views of Plato and further elaborated the ideas and theories of his famous predecessor often using mathematical instruments and elements in doing so. In particular, Xenocrates contributed significantly to the studies of demonology (Platonic theology). The scholar believed that duality and unity were gods which ruled the world and pervaded all things while the human soul was a self-moving number and that the demonical powers that also existed in the universe acted as an intermediate link or channel between the divine and the soul: "Xenocrates distinguishes three cosmological causes: the Forms as original patterns, the demiurge, and matter. Via allegories he combines the philosophical worldview with mythical religion" (Ricken 1991 pp. 119-120). Xenocrates' interpretations of Plato's principles (particularly his attempt to order philosophic p rinciples into logic and mathematics) seriously supplemented the foundations of Platonist philosophy. Polemon of Athens became the Head of the Academy in 314
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Music as the Most Important Factor in Life - Essay Example I feel that the beauty and richness that music brought into my life is definitely worth sharing. This is precisely why I think that visiting schools as an artistic ambassador would be a very good idea. I hope to bring some positivity and actually make a difference in the lives of students. I have already done something to that effect when I worked as an ambassador at a Boston school last year through From the TopÃ¢â¬â¢s Leadership program. The school had a music program but no chamber music, and this is where I came in Ã¢â¬â I helped them experience chamber music under my guidance. When we discovered that the children were a little too serious throughout the program, we decided to change the plan for the week and only concentrate on entertaining them. It was really gratifying to see all the smiles that we brought to their faces while they played music. It was, perhaps, one of the most defining events of my life as a musician, and that is what gave me the incentive to be an art a dvocate and spread music and, thus, bring joy into peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. The last century has seen the development of music on a linear scale in a positive direction. The adaption of modern musical instruments and equipment has not only changed the concept of composing music but has also altered the way people prefer to hear music (Shepherd 2-18). It has been really fascinating for me to learn how in the music culture of the past, folklore was used to tell stories of real life. As a music advocate, I wish to reinvent the same realism in my music. I would also like to motivate and train school children to use modern technology in their compositions. For instance, I have observed that listening to music on mobile phones has become a very common trend, and so has the trend of using various smart phone applications to enhance music. I would encourage students to take advantage of all this technology.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
The Effects of Change on an Organization, in Particular the Learners Services Department and Sustainability of the Changes - Essay Example So once change is made in the Learners Services Department, it must be maintained for effective functioning. This change, together with it, brings pain and insecurities that force human beings or persons to come out of their comfort regions to regions of uncomfortable discussions, and this guides to resistance to change. Central Bedfordshire College ability to improve is acceptable. The new executive and principal teams of the college must have an apparent strategic vision to make changes. They involve every personnel in planning how this is executed so that proceedings impact positively on learners. How efficiently and competently the top leadership and management inside the organization address these matters or issues, and how well they get ready in handling the resistance will decide the confidence of the organization, and its achievement in executing change. The significance of good communication scheme and the role it plays in creating change processes soft and less painful, or sore by cannot be undermined. The appointment of the latest principal, managers, every governors and workers are completely involved in building up a mission which situates learning and learners at the centre of every the college work. Managers position and frequently examine realistic targets for development for every course. Managers work intimately with local companies to guarantee that the set of courses and modes and times of proviso meet local requirements. Management and Leadership are satisfactory in the college. Course groups work healthy collectively to support their learners with clear and shared focus on rising rate of success. Every course has their own challenging targets, but employees do not always completely own or recognize these... This essay stresses that the interview was conducted on April 2nd at 1.30 pm. The interviewee was Eamonn Egan, interim vice principal, curriculum and standards, and previously he was the head of learner services. The interview was done by Farrah Riaz. The duration of this interview was 17 mins 44 seconds. Many important questions were asked by the interviewer. Eamonn Egan answered the entire question clearly and appropriately. This paper makes a conclusion that the advantages are that they give the people in the department a sense of identity, and it brings together closer woring relationships. He said the new structure that is planned is to take responsibility of the development of the curriculum away from a small group of HODs and devolve it down to sixteen Learning Area Managers, so that those managers can be specialists in the curriculum areas because they are much smaller than the departments, and can take responsibility for the development of the curriculum. Emmons said there are some potential disadvantages also. For example, while the lines of responsibility are devolved to give curriculum responsibility to people nearer the ground as it were and to be specialists in fewer numbers of things and they develop themselves appropriately. It can potentially lead to a situation where nobody is in charge of something. A mission statement is just a platitude and what makes a good mission statement for me is one that contains words that express the values and feelings one wants the institute to have, and so ours is a poor mission statement in my mind.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Transition to democracy - Essay Example The new political institutions such as the electorate and form of government set up must be voluntaristic, whereby the people contribute to their outcome. Centralization of these is essential in order to promote public policy, rather than personal interests (Lijphart 163-164). Democracies must have functioning political parties and electorate systems as these are the foundation of democratic rule. In this country, a multi-party system is the best approach for political parties. Choosing this ensures that citizens can determine whom they want to govern the country. Unlike a two-party system, a multi-party system gives full representation to the people, especially considering the ethnic diversity of this country (Lijphart 168-170). In this country therefore, multi-party will help in addressing the issue of multi-ethnicity. The most appropriate electorate system for this new democracy is the proportional representation. This allows for the political equality, minority participation, a participatory leadership, and the consideration of the preferences of voters in the polity. Proportional electorate therefore enhances equality and fairness. Unlike majority system, which focuses on the effectiveness of governance only, representation system focuses on effective governance as well as the representation of the minority in the polity. Proportional representation leads to the satisfaction of citizens in their country governance. This system is in alignment with democracy as it allows for personal choice, which is an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right, and allows voting for personalities, and not manifestos. It is also a simple system, which is easy to understand. In addition, this formula has an integrating and concentrating effect for electors and society. The electioneering process must be conducted carefully by th e legislature, which
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Questions about election maps - Article Example The graphics used usually draw quick attention to the viewer and further provides broader parameters of animation. The other type is called the paper map or the static map and majorly signifies stillness in observation. It is more evident that digital online maps presents modern kind of viewer interaction summarized as follows. They can be updated regularly as opposed to static maps which are printed hence not up to date. Creating online maps have reduced the normal production rate. Consequently static maps involve more paper work during creation stages such that it slows down production process. Digital maps also have the ability to contain more information as large data can be downloaded while the static maps cannot contain large files due to the apparent storage limit. On the other hand static maps are found to be valuable in the sense that they provide vital aspects of the original information stored when effecting new changes. I therefore strongly believe in my opinion that digital online maps are more effective compared to static maps. This is majorly because digital maps have moved with the current trend of technology hence represents the modern face of successful invention with utmost accuracy and
The philosophy of nonviolent protest - Term Paper Example This was substituted with active voices and progressive actions that led to change against injustices. The basis of nonviolent protest came from the philosophies of Henry David Thoreau. This followed with several political and cultural leaders that followed the main philosophies of Thoreau and which focused on creating higher levels of equality and freedom for the cultural and social aspects of society. More importantly, each of these leaders was able to create a voice that was based outside of violence and which instead gained prestige from the use of actions and alternative forces to change the current political environment. The basis of the philosophy of non Ã¢â¬â violent protest was known to come from ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Civil Disobedience, which was written in 1848. The main concept that is pointed out in this book is based on the current government and the injustices and lack of freedom that came from policies of the government. Thoreau points out that any violent protests are an arm of the government and represent a sense of injustice that is associated with politics. Thoreau believes that the use of violence and the army is one that creates a lack of integrity from the government. More importantly, Thoreau points out that the army alone is one that eventually leads to the inability for a country to be free or to function through the democratic ideals in which it is founded on. The challenge that Thoreau places is to create a better environment, which is specifically based on adding in integrity and an initiation to end violence through the country. The first ideology that Thoreau gives with the basic concept of the government and using non Ã¢â¬â violent protest is based on the moral obligations that are in the government. Thoreau believes that the use of violence is one that initiates a lack of integrity and the inability to have responsibility to humans and life. More importantly, the use of violent force doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow men to act with
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Ethical issues with Facebook - Essay Example Many comments are made on Facebook, especially on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal profile. For the majority of people these comments do not resolve in conflict, specifically work-related conflict. However, it is getting more and more difficult to separate Facebook from the workplace. Employers are now utilizing Facebook as a means for hire or no hire depending on the profile. An interview may be determined by whether or not an interviewee has photos of him or herself intoxicated with supporting graphic posts that employers do not find desirable in coworkers. Likewise, a presentable profile may increase the chances of a person being hired. Employers are attempting to observe who potential hires truly are and how they carry on in their daily lives as a way to weed out problematic hires. The same is true for an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s current boss, or employer who may keep tabs on the employee to make sure he or she is a consistently presentable person as that employee is in some way or anoth er a representation of the company. No employer wants an employee to state that they work for their company on Facebook then flood their profile with vulgar or inappropriate information. Unsuitable photos or language on Facebook is not the only concern potential applicants have when being inspected by an employer (mostly without their knowledge). Facebook gives the user the option to post their religion, race, age, health, and political views making it an unethical resource. Employers should not be granted this information as it may stipulate unjust action. The employer is open to discriminate an applicant based on this information that would otherwise not be at their disposal. Ã¢â¬Å"It is unfair for employers, absent express permission from an employee or potential employee, to find ways to check these sites, which are created, in most cases, for friends, family, and social acquaintancesÃ¢â¬ (Marshall). Not only is that important to recognize when signing up for Facebook, but i t is also crucial to know that future employers are not the only ones who are eager to view and use an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s profile page for some thing other than what it is intended. Facebook exploited a new Terms of Service in 2009. It states: You hereby grant Facebook an irrevocable, perpetual, non-exclusive, transferable, fully paid, worldwide license (with the right to sublicense) to (a) use, copy, publish, stream, store, retain, publicly perform or display, transmit, scan, reformat, modify, edit, frame, translate, excerpt, adapt, create derivative works and distribute (through multiple tiers), any User Content you (i) Post on or in connection with the Facebook Service or the promotion thereof subject only to your privacy settings or (ii) enable a user to Post, including by offering a Share Link on your website and (b) to use your name, likeness and image for any purpose, including commercial or advertising, each of (a) and (b) on or in connection with the Facebook Service or th e promotion thereof. (Marshall) The ethical debate in this instance include normative, which determines the right course of action using ethics, and applied, which helps establish what feats need to take place to resolve this case. Ethics is called for in this situation because the issue involves an imposition of rights of FacebookÃ¢â¬â¢s users, which is unethical. It is unethical for two reasons. One, Facebook
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Technology Used in the Business Environment - Research Paper Example The technology that will be available to business will increase in the coming years. Failure to take advantage of technology provides advantage to the competition. Types of Technology in a Business Environment Table of Contents Section Page Title Page Abstract 1 Table of Contents 2 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Mobile Computers 3 3.0 Scanners, Barcode and RFID Devices 4 4.0 IP Video Systems for Monitoring Operation and Security 5 5.0 Voice over Internet Protocol 6 6.0 Conclusion 7 References 8 List of Figure Figure Number Title Page 1 Mobile computer in action 4 2 Scanners as used for inventories 5 3 IP Video Systems 6 Types of Technology in a Business Environment 1.0. Introduction Technology is crucial for war, peace, business, and life. This is the reason why man has abandoned the technology of the bow and arrows to move on to the technology of the nuclear bomb. It is also the rationale why man has to improve his means of communication. Businesses prosper and become competitive only when the most advanced technology is used and life only becomes comfortable when the most advanced technology is tapped. Given the current economic environment of financial crisis where costs have to be tapered down and yet operational efficiency and power must be maintained, technology is a crucial part of the solution for business survival. It is therefore imperative to look into the types of technology that businesses can use to maintain competitiveness, efficiency, and survival if not profitability. In this work, I looked into four types of technology which I believe businesses will have to access if they want to be competitive in their industry. My impression is that the technologies that I will discuss will enable businesses to cut on labor and professional costs while making work and life easier for labor as they make the latter more productive. 2.0. Mobile Computers One type of technology which I consider has been significantly changing the way we conduct businesses are the mobil e computers. Of course, we have witnessed how the laptop enabled an element of the work force to be productive wherever he or she may be. The laptop enabled the businessman to bring anywhere not only his or her organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business data but also the means through which data can be analyzed: accounting, financial, planning, and management computer software. A fairly recent development that can be used by businesses is in the area of mobile computers. According to BearCom (2011a, p. 8), the mobile computers are Ã¢â¬Å"making processes more efficient.Ã¢â¬ BearCom cited several success stories that benefitted from mobile computing. In particular, BearCom cited the case of Huntsman Corporation where Ã¢â¬Å"with realÃ -time wireless tracking of rounds activity, the number of pumps requiring daily inspections has been reduced by 50 percent---allowing more time for other crucial inspection areasÃ¢â¬ (2011, p. 8). Further, according to BearCom (2011, p. 8), with mobile comp uting Ã¢â¬Å"defect elimination work requests are now initiated in the field in real time.Ã¢â¬ In Figure 1 below, an application of mobile computing is shown where recording, computation of the bill and billing become part of a single step. Figure 1. Mobile computer in action Source: BearCom, 2011, p. 8 It is obvious from Figure 1 that with mobile computing, several processes of business operations can be reduced into a single step thereby reducing costs, promoting productivity, and enhancing efficiency. Obviously, there will savings. There are obviously
Monday, July 22, 2019
Brazil and United States Healthcare Essay Abstract The topic of health care has become the most pressing and ongoing debates for not only the United States but also many other nations around the world. Many countries have implemented a universal health coverage for years with effective results. While the United States steps into a immature national health care program, the government can observe BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system to learn valuable lessons. The type of health care system a country chooses has a major effect on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s health care professionals. While comparing the health care professionals of the United States and Brazil, many similarities can be seen; however, the United States can learn many lessons from Brazil. A Comparative Analysis of Health Care Professionals in Brazil to Those in the United States The latest topic in the United States today, is the subject of healthcare reform in the United States. With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) upheld by the Supreme Court in 2012, Americans everywhere have formed an opinion about the new national health care systemÃ¢â¬âmost opinions viewing the national system as negative. However, several developed nations similar to the United States have partaken in a national health care system for years. The large nation of Brazil has utilized a national health system since 1923, and has seen both positives and negatives. Many Americans see the supply and demand of health care professionals as a potential threat to the future of the ACA and the United States as a wholeÃ¢â¬âa definite issue that has affected Brazil. In Brazil, health care is viewed as a constitutional right being offered by private and government organizations and is an obligation of the state. Through the Unified Health System (SUS), public health care is universal and provided free of charge to all Brazilian permanent residents. In addition to the United Health System, Brazilians also have private based health insurance coverage which the wealthier population can usually purchase, and Brazilians can be offered healthÃ coverage by their respective employers if available. As of 2003, 174.6 million Brazilian residents receiving benefits from the SUS were documented. Of the 174.6 million, 475,699 healthcare professionals existed within Brazilian health care. In 2012, the total percentage of GDP spent on health expenditure in Brazil was at a four-year high of 9.3%. However, BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s health expenditure is far lower than the United States health expenditure that spent a total of 17.9% in 2012. In Brazil the average life expectancy has been on the rise since 2000. In 2010, average Brazilian life expectancy was reported at 73.5 years with a life expectancy for men at 69.7 and for women at 77.3. The infant mortality rate in Brazil has been decreasing over the years, but is still considered high for a developed nation. Maternal mortality rate in Brazil is also decreasing in years and would be considered average compared to other countries. In an attempt to improve the national health care system in Brazil, the Brazilian government established the Ã¢â¬Å"Mais MedicosÃ¢â¬ program, or more doctors program, in 2013. The project was aimed to create close to 1,000 jobs for physicians to tend to patients in the 22 states that have fewer doctors than the national averageÃ¢â¬âmost of the states lying in the Northern region of the nation. In addition to their salaries, doctors are provided financial aid to cover housing and sustenance per municipalities of the government. The program will employ physicians temporarily while the Brazilian government looks to increase attendance to Brazilian medical schools over a short amount of time by offering substantial amounts of financial aid and increasing expenditures on medical school scholarships. Originally, the program was offered to Brazilian resident doctors only in an attempt to bring doctors from the more populated and urban areas to the rural and less populated areas. When few residential doctors applied, the Brazilian government extended Mais Medicos to Brazilian doctors who received their education overseas and foreign doctors. Prior to applying, it was suggested that applicants should have a general understanding of the Portuguese language in order to be accepted into the program. At the end of the application process, nearly 20,000 doctors had submitted applications with listed preferences of the cities that they wish to work in. Doctors involved in the program are required to work 40 hours a week for three years and may work no longer than 6 years in the program. The physicians accepted into the Mais Medicos program receive 10,000 BrazilianÃ Reals (an equivalent to $4,501 US dollars) per month to spend on housing and necessities. During 2013, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff imported nearly 11,000 Cuban physicians to serve in the program. Cuban physicians were to serve similar hours, but their salaries would be sent to the Cuban government who would distribute 40%-50% of the earnings to the physicians working in Brazil. This exchange has been an ongoing debate between the medical community of Brazil and its government. The benefits listed above are considered to be beneficial to physicians. The life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and maternal mortality rate are all at a good standing compared to recent generations in Brazil; therefore, the physicians having these characteristics as a resume topic shows that they were a part of a Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ in Brazil. Although the Mais Medicos program seems to have some flaws and a definite group that disapproves of it, it also is seen by many to do well for the health care system in Brazil and has many supporters. The common problem in Brazil for health care professionals seems to be a lack of distribution of doctors into the more rural areas of the country. On average in Brazil, there are only 2 hospital beds per 1,000 people. In the northern regions of Brazil, where more rural areas are found, the amount of hospitals per resident is lower than the average. Much like in the United States, doctors are very reluctant to the thought of beginning a practice in a small rural town. Reasons being that small rural towns are usual ly less populated and on average bring in less household income. In Brazil, the idea of practicing medicine in these depressed areas is even less glamorous because of the government involvement in health care. In these areas, practices receive less attention including lack of supplies and infrastructure. Physicians located within wealthier and more populous areas have slightly better access to equipment and infrastructure, but the conditions differ only slightly. Doctors are extremely rushed with a constant overflow of patients and consistently working in hot rooms with little air circulation. This is problem does not only exist in the public clinics of general physicians. Specialist physicians have a persistent flood of patients who do not need a specialistÃ¢â¬â¢s care, but seek the specialist because there is no general physician available. Another challenge that BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s physicians face is the complete absence of electronic health records (EHRs). Although electronic health records can be difficult andÃ costly to implement, the benefits of them to a health system that lacks infrastructure can be monumental. EHRs improve quality, convenience, care coordination, practice efficiencies, and cost efficiencies. Implementing electronic health records would improve the quality of BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s physicians work environment. The last challenge Brazil physicians face is the existence of corruption within the system. One example includes BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s wealthier population paying physicians under the table to treat them before others. While some patients are in dire need of an operation or treatment, a wealthier patient has the opportunity to offer the physician an amount of money that will sway the physician to treat their situation before othersÃ¢â¬âeven though the others have been waiting an extended amount of time. Unfortunately, these types of situations are not illegal in Brazil; therefore, it happens frequently. In the United States, health care has only recently been provided as Ã¢â¬Å"universal coverageÃ¢â¬ . It is an ongoing debate to whether health care in America is a right or a privilege. The United States has always offered free health coverage to the elderly and the poorÃ¢â¬âpaid for by taxpayers. In 2010, Medicare and Medicaid covered at least 112,979,783. In addition to Medicare and Medicaid, most of the American population has chosen to receive employer-based health coverage. The number of Americans with employer-based health coverage, however, has been declining since the discussion of the Affordable Care Act. Since the Affordable Care Act has come about, over 8 million people have signed up for coverage with 87% of the newly insured being previously uninsured. In 2012, the World Bank reported that there were 2.5 physicians per 1,000 people. In 2012, the total percentage of GDP spent on health expenditure in the United States was at a 17.9%. This total is far greater than the amount of GDP spent on health expenditure in Brazil. In the United States the average life expectancy has steadily increased over generations. The life expectancy reported in 2012 was 78.7 years. Although it would normally be a slight age difference, it is an incredible gap for life expectancy with Brazil at 73.5. The infant mortality rate in the United States has been steady over recent years at 6 deaths per 1,000 births. Maternal mortality rate is significantly lower in the U.S. than Brazil with Brazil at 69 deaths per 100,000 births and the United States at 28 deaths per 100,000 births. Overall, physiciansÃ working in the United States would have a greater professional advantage over those who practice in Brazil. Not only does the United States report superior statistics for life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and maternal mortality rate, but the United States is generally a wealthier nation than Brazil. Because the United States has been a democracy for over 200 years and because of their general wealth, it is likely that the United States is in a better position to take over a health care system plan like BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s. Much like Brazil, the United States new ACA health care plan has cut the uninsured rate in half and will continue decreasing the number of uninsured over the next several years. In regards to the corruption that Brazil faces on a daily basis with the wealthy paying physicians under the table, the United States cannot completely rule out the possibilities of that happening within the new health care system. However, regulations and laws have been established to prevent such situations. While there are many benefits to becoming a healthcare professional in the United States, there are also some challenges. One of the greatest challenges that physicians in the United States will face under the ACA is the growing number of patients who need to be seen by a doctor. New patients will flood waiting rooms with problems that may be preexisting with no prior treatment. However, doctors may not mind seeing more patients per day, because the amount of insurance reimbursement doctors receive will continue to decline. This is because the Affordable Care Act not only set out to achieve health care for more Americans, but it also set out to decrease overall health care costs. With the discussion of the ACA causing insurance reimbursement shrinkage and higher insurance premiums, it will become more costly to run a private practice. Overall, both the United States and BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system have their advantages and disadvantages. While American physicians are struggling with shrinking reimbursements and a surplus of patients, Brazilian physicians are struggling with a lack of equipment and supplies and are challenged by corruption regularly. While it seems that the United States is leaning towards a similar health care system to BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s United Health System, Americans can correct the mistakes made by Brazil in regards to the treatment and use of its health care professionals. References The Affordable Care Act: A Quick Guide forÃ Physicians. (n.d.). National Physicians Alliance. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://npalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/NPA-ACA.Quick_.Guide_.for_.Physicians.041311.p Bevins, V. (2014, January 6). Brazils president imports Cuban doctors to ease shortage. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-ff-brazil-doctors-20140106-story.html#page=1 Elias, Paulo Eduardo M., and Amelia Cohn. Health Reform in Brazil: Lessons to Consider. PubMed Central. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 July 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles Flying in doctors. (2013, August 31). The Economist. Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://www.economist.com/news/americas/21584349-government-imports-foreigners-reach-parts-locals-dont-want-flying-doctors Kane, J. (2012, October 22). Health Costs: How the U.S. Compares With Other Countries. PBS. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/health-costs-how-the-us-compares-with-other-countries/ LoGiurato, B. (2014, May 1). Heres How Many People Actually Gained Insurance Because Of Obamacare. Business Insider. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://www.businessinsider.com/how-many-people-signed-up-for-obamacare-2014- Squires, D. A. (2012, May 1). The mission of The Commonwealth Fund is to promote a high performance health care system. The Fund carries out this mandate by supporting independent research on health care issues and making grants to improve health care practice and policy. Support for . Issues in International Health Policy. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/medi The World Bank. (n.d.). The World Bank. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://data.worldbank.org
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Radiation Protection Personal Protective Equipment Introduction: The assignment, consist of three parts including this introduction, which mentions how the assignment will take shape. Ideas and concepts taken from elsewhere for the preparation of this document will be cited appropriately within the work. The document which will be given to staff will address the issues pertaining to the appropriate use of personal protective equipment(PPE), legislations associated with their use, the principles of physics behind their use. The document will briefly delve in to issues pertaining to radiation hazards and protection, legislations relevant to radiation work in United Kingdom and use of personal protective equipment. Principles of physics behind radiation protection methods will be addressed in the document. Commonly used PPE in radiographic departments will be explained with their appropriate use along with personnel dosimetry. Local rules aiding radiation protection and defining PPE use will be also addressed in the document. Radiation protection methods and appropriate use of PPE will be given in a tabular format explaining where, when and why these protection methods and PPE should be used for those situations. The third section of this work will include a conclusion which will include the reasoning behind the composition of the document. It will also briefly address other important radiation protection issues and methods which are not addressed in the documents and the reasoning behind it. It will demonstrate how the assignment brief has been addressed by the document. The conclusion segment of this assignment will also emphasise as to why understanding of the work produced is important. The main factors aiding the preparation and decisions made for the preparation of the document will also be included in the conclusion. At the end of the work all references used in the preparation of this work will be laid out in the Harvard system of referencing. Radiation Protection and the use of Personal Protective Equipment. Introduction: Being at the leading edge of radiation dose delivery, a radiographer has a unique professional duty towards himself and others around him for a reduction in the hazards caused by ionising radiation (Manning, 2004). Many radiation related fatalities and injuries suffered by radiation pioneers and scientific studies of the 1950s, which implicated low level doses to stochastic effects in radiation workers and patients led to the radiation protection regulations of today (Bushong, 2003). Radiation hazards When humans are irradiated, atomic interactions results in ionisation, this can lead to chemical and biological changes which are damaging to the cells and chromosomes. This radiation induced changes can lead to two distinct types of injuries at cellular level. Deterministic effects: Above a certain threshold dose, effects show up and the severity of the effects increase with dose Stochastic effects: Probability of occurrence of effects increases with increase in dose. The effects include cancer induction and hereditary effects in future generations (Martin and Harbison, 2006). These late stochastic effects, has led to the radiation protection regulations of today (Bushong 2003). What is Radiation protection and why do it In light of the hazards that could be caused by radiation, protection from unnecessary radiation gains paramount importance. All radiation workers and patients should be protected against these hazards by various methods and equipment, this process is called radiation protection. A system of linear non threshold (LNT) model for radiation protection is applied to all radiation practices (Martin 2004). There is also increasing opinion in favour of radiation hormesis(Carver 2006), but since there is no absolute evidence to suggest a lower threshold below which no damage occurs the LNT model as required by current legislations is considered appropriate to estimate risks at low doses(Matthews and Brennan 2008) The patient should only be exposed if the clinical evidence suggests that the patient is likely to benefit from the procedures. The law requires the doses to be kept to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), so the requirement of radiation protection is laid out by various legislations (Graham et al.,2007). The regulations relevant to radiographic work and the use of PPE in United Kingdom (UK) Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999(IRR 1999) Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 (IR(ME)R) Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases, and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995(RIDDOR 1995) Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) (Messer, 2009) The recommendations of The International Commission for Radiation Protection(ICRP), that radiation exposure to radiation workers and the patient should be As Low As Reasonably Achievable(ALARA) is generally accepted(Engel-Hills,2006), The recommendations of ICRP and the European union(EU) euratom directives have all had a significant impact on British law (Whitley et al., 2005) Principles of Radiation Protection IR(ME)R requires all medical exposures in diagnostic radiology to apply the radiation protection principles of justification, optimisation and dose limitation. (Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine(IPEM), 2002). These principles ensure patient dose is kept to the ALARP principle. The cardinal principles of radiation protection will be further discussed. Minimising Time: As the dose is directly proportional to duration of exposure, minimising the time of exposure results in reduced dose. Minimising the time spent near a radiation source also reduces exposure. This protection method finds its use in fluoroscopy. Other methods used in fluoroscopy, using this protection method to reduce exposure is pulsed progressive fluoroscopy and the regular interval reset timers (Bushong, 2001). Maximising Distance: The cheapest form of radiation protection is afforded by the inverse square law, which states that the radiation intensity varies to the inverse of the square of the distance (Farr and Allisy-Roberts 1997). This law holds true for the primary beam which is considered a point source of radiation. While using mobile x-ray units a radiographer can avail this principle of physics to get maximum protection by standing as far away from the source as possible with the aid of the long cable which should be at least 2metre from the x-ray tube during exposure (Bushong 2001). Dowd (1991) considers distance to be the simplest and most effective of radiation protection measures. Maximising Shielding: Maximising shielding between the radiation source and exposed personnel reduces radiation exposure considerably. The effectiveness of the shielding material is estimated in terms of its half-value layer(HVL), which is the amount of material needed to reduce radiation exposure in to half, and tenth-value layers(TVLs); which is the amount of material needed to reduce exposure to one tenth of its original amount. The preferred material for shielding is lead (Pb). The physics behind the usage of lead for protection is its high atomic number (82). This high atomic number ensures that a majority of scatter photons gets absorbed due to its high attenuation. PPE used in radiography departments: Lead Aprons: They are made from powdered lead incorporated in a binder of rubber or vinyl. They come in various lead equivalencies. If used as a secondary barrier to absorb scattered radiation an apron with lead equivalency of at least 0.25mm should be used. Lead aprons shall be at least 0.5mm of lead equivalent for fluoroscopy but can be higher to the range of 1mm of lead equivalence. The downside of greater lead equivalent aprons is the greater weight. Now manufacturers make aprons with composite materials-a combination of lead, barium and tungsten. They have reduced weight and provide better attenuation of radiation. Lead Gloves: They provide at least 0.25mm or more of lead equivalent protection. Used mainly in fluoroscopy or by people holding patients during examination. Thyroid Shields: Mainly for use while performing fluoroscopy, these offers protection to thyroid. Mobile Shields: These could be moved around and are sometimes used in angiography. Protective Eyewear: Protective glasses are used mainly in fluoroscopy to protect against the cataractogenic effect of radiation(Dowd and Tilson 1999). The concept used for radiation-protection practices is the effective dose(E). Effective dose considers the relative radio sensitivity of various tissues and organs. Effective Dose(E) =Radiation weighting factor(Wr) x Tissue weighting factor(Wt) x Absorbed dose (Bushong, 2001) Personnel Dosimetry: All classified radiation workers are routinely monitored for radiation exposures using personnel monitors. Though they do not provide any radiation protection on their own, they offer the quantity of radiation to which the person using the monitor was exposed. The commonly used dosimeters in diagnostic radiology are film badges, Thermoluminescent dosimeters(TLD) and the pocket dosimeter (Thompson et al.,1994). Local Rules which will include working procedures and protocols for the department should be always followed for the appropriate use of PPE Protective Methods/PPE usedng 2001,Bushong 2003) Conclusion: Writing an assignment about the appropriate use of PPE for radiation protection, the need to highlight radiation hazards was considered important and so the assignment started with a brief outlook of radiation hazards and subsequently radiation protection concept was discussed with emphasis on why staff and patients must be protected. The LNT dose response model for radiation protection and new concept favouring lower doses such as radiation hormesis was briefly addressed. The justification for using the LNT model for radiation protection was also emphasised. The legal requirement for radiation protection of patients and staff was discussed and legislations relevant to radiographic work in UK and other organisations influencing British law on radiation safety was discussed. Recommendations of ICRP, as low as reasonably achievable( ALARA) concept and the IR(ME)R requirements of radiation protection of patient through the principles of justification, optimization and limitation was also addressed. These introductory explanations, was considered important as they were the basis for the subject for radiation protection and highlighted the need for radiation protection in diagnostic imaging departments. Preparing the core of the work was not possible without addressing the cardinal principles of radiation protection, hence they were all discussed briefly, where these protection principles find its application for radiation protection in radiographic departments. Time, Distance, Shielding concepts of radiation protection was discussed. Distance and Shielding concept of radiation protection was discussed in detail as they find their use quite often in imaging departments. Material commonly used for shielding with the principles of physics behind its usage was also addressed. Concepts such as half -value layer(HVL) and tenth value layers (TVLs), used to define the effectiveness of the shielding material was also detailed. Personal protective equipment generally used in imaging departments such as lead rubber aprons, lead rubber gloves, thyroid shield, protective eye wear, mobile shield was discussed. Their appropriate usage in specific areas was also considered. Concept of effective dose was also briefly discussed as this was considered an important concept in radiation dose. Personnel dosimetry was discussed with a brief on the various types of personnel dosimeters used in diagnostic imaging departments, as these dosimeters play an important role in dose regulation and monitoring radiation exposure in staff. Radiation protection methods to reduce patient dose has not been elaborated and special arrangements for pregnant radiographer such as rotating out of high exposure areas such as mobile x-ray and fluoroscopy and wearing a secondary badge under the apron at waist level when involved in such examinations to measure foetal dose(Dowd and Tilson 1994) has not been addressed in the document, so as to keep the assignment within its permissible constraints. With all this being presented, it was decided to summarize the use of PPE and protection methods in various areas of a radiographic department; x-ray room, while using mobile x-ray equipment in wards and theatres, Fluoroscopy which is a major contributor of staff dose(Bushong 2001) and CT was considered. It was decided to project these points in a tabular format within the document for simplicity and to meet the assignment brief within the imposed limitations. It also demonstrates the appropriate usage of PPE and radiation protection methods. Adequate shielding in diagnostic imaging departments both primary and secondary shielding as required by legislations, means that a radiographer is sufficiently protected from the scatter, as long as they position themselves behind the protective barrier during exposure. This point is stressed within the tabular column in the document as this is considered an important radiation protection practice. X-ray tube incorporates lead shielding to attenuate the radiation travelling in any other direction other than the useful beam. The housing of the tube have a lead equivalent of typically 2.5mm (Farr and Allisy-Roberts 1997). This greatly reduces scatter or leaked radiation exposure to staff and patient. These and other protection measures incorporated with in modern x-ray machines such as collimation, beam alignment, filtration and other manual protective measures to reduce patient dose-including specific area shielding, such as contact shields and shadow shields which provide gonadal pr otection to patients have not been discussed in the document due to the scope and constraints of the assignment. All radiation protection methods employed to reduce patient dose bring down staff exposure as well, so good radiographic practice helps achieve reduced dose to both patient and staff (Graham et al., 2007) Local rules as required by IRR 1999, to be a part of all departments which involves working with ionising radiation has been addressed in the document briefly, but they are an important resource towards radiation protection as these rules include written systems of work, including protocols and procedures for the imaging department. Details of contingency plans and the names of Radiation protection advisers(RPA) and Radiation Protection Supervisors(RPS) are contained within the rules(Graham et al.,2007) Principles of physics, pertaining to the use of lead in the preparation of shielding materials have been discussed in the assignment. Reading the document will inform the reader about the appropriate use of PPE, as to where, when and why to use these PPE. It also informs the reader the various legislations associated with radiation protection and the use of PPE in UK. It also highlights the hazards caused by ionising radiation and the need for radiation protection. Hence the assignment brief has been addressed. Radiation protection is an important subject to be considered in the diagnostic radiography department (Moores, 2006) and hence a clear understanding of radiation protection issues is important. Ionizing radiation can cause real damage to current and future generations if not dealt with carefully, hence understanding radiation protection and the correct usage of PPE in aiding radiation protection through this work is considered important. Together with a wide range of resources, the valuable experience gained during the clinical placement in a radiography department, observing the safety practices and usage of PPE in the imaging departments and critical self evaluation of methods and practices using the aid of published works has helped me arrive at the key decisions which are addressed in the document. 1
French Fourth Republic This essay examines the reasons for the fall of the French Fourth Republic (1945-1958), with a focus on the impact of the French-Algerian war as well as examining the other causes that contributed to the demise of the government such as the French Indo-China War as well as what seemed like the inherent instability of the structure of government and the cabinet in the French Fourth Republic. The research question that the essay would be is to what extent was the French-Algerian War the cause of the fall of the French Fourth Republic? The time frame of this essay will be the entire length of the French Fourth Republics reign in government from 1945, following the end of World War, until 1958, when Charles de Gaulle rose to power and formed the French Fifth Republic. This timeframe also encompasses the start of both the French Algerian War and the French Indo-China War in 1954 and 1946 respectively. The stand that this essay will be taking is the view that the French Algerian War was the main cause of the fall of the Fourth Republic. While the instability of the cabinet of the Fourth Republic contributed to its fall due to the infighting among the coalitions, characterized by the 24 different governments in its 13 year reign, it was the controversy over French Algerian war and Algerian independence that led to the intervention from the right-wing supporters in the French Army that led to eventual coup that toppled the French Fourth Republic. Word count: 251 Introduction The fall of the French Fourth Republic saw the return of General Charles de Gaulle to power for the first time since the end of World War 2, serving as the first President of the French Fifth Republic. His return to power was a result of being voted in by the French National Assembly due to the collapse of the previous French Fourth Republic.Ã Ã Prior to the fall of the government, there was a strong resistance movement already building up in French Algeria as the local government sought independence from French rule. This culminated in violence against French forces present in the area by the paramilitary nationalist political party, the National Liberation Front or FLN. The problem of Algerian independence was further compounded by the problem of the pied-noirs, or Algerian-French. Among the European colonizers, France had the largest number of its population in its colonies and thus, this means that there would be an extremely large number of refugees should the indigenous government gain independence; around 1 million French would be displaced compared to the 250,000 Dutch and 15,000 Britons.Ã Ã Therefore, there was a split in the French Parliament over the handling of the matter due to the contrasting views possessed within the ruling coalition government. Furthermore, the frequency in which the ruling government was replaced also added to the situation as different coalitions had different mandates regarding Algeria. BODY Significance of time frame choice The French Republic was in power from 1945 following the end of World War 2 to its end following the May Crisis in 1958. Its entire government lasted encompassed the entire French Algerian War, which was from 1946-1954, as well as the start as well as the majority of the Algerian War, which started in 1954. Thus, most of the battle-weary troops from the French Indo-China War and World War 2 before that were sent straight into Algeria to fight, causing unhappiness among the men and the generals. Furthermore, as it came to power following the end of World War 2, the government of the Fourth Republic was placed in charge of rebuilding the countrys infrastructure and economy. But, the governance of the Fourth Republic was marred by economic mismanagement.Ã Ã French Algerian War France did not have an empire since the time of Napoleon III in the 1860s, an empire which eventually collapsed around 1870. Thus, when Algeria, the oldest and the crown jewel in the 3rd French Empire wanted independence, France was unwilling to relinquish its colony. The response could be attributed back to the 2nd French Empire, when the belief that colonization was a civilizing mission to be carried out amidst a mood of what Harrison terms, chauvinistic expansionism.Ã Ã Conflicts between France and Algeria were nothing new by the 1950s. Since the end of World War 2, the Algerian government had been pushing for independence whereas France had in fact, been trying to keep its empire from crumbling after World War 2. Thus, when Algeria, one of Frances oldest colonies tried to declare independence, the conflict that erupted between them quickly tied up the military forces; soldiers who had been fighting in the jungles of French Indochina were quickly reposted to the desert sands of Algeria to fight in another war. This pressure on France for Algerian independence culminated in violence against French troops in Algeria by the National Liberation Front and the National Liberation Army in a war characterized by the use of terror and guerilla attacks against civilians on both sides. This resulted in unpopularity for the war among both the French and Algerian civilians and in particular, the French Army.Ã Ã The main cause of the dissatisfaction for the government was the poor leadership and wavering resolve to assure a military solution that the generals perceived the armed forces were receiving under the leadership of the Fourth Republic. However, the government was also disturbed by unchecked military action in Algeria and refused to commit more troops, leaving the French Army without the decisive firepower needed to punch through the resistance.Ã Ã Thus generals wished for a strong, authoritarian figure to take control, a figure they saw in Charles de GaulleÃ Ã , unlike then-current French Prime Minister Pierre Pflimlin, whom the generals perceived as indecisive and by May 1958, the loyalty of the military to the government was seen as doubtful.Ã Ã Back in France, dissatisfaction regarding the governments plan to cede independence to Algeria resulted in a coup being planned by generals of the French Army, Generals Jean Gracieux, Jacques Massau who supported Admiral Auboyneau, Raoul Salan and Edmond Jouhaud to overthrow the existing government and replace it with Charles de Gaulle as the new head of state. The rogue generals then launched paratroopers into Corsica and threatened to do the same in Paris, with an armored division on standby.Ã Ã Thus, the coup, known as the May 1958 crisis in French history, could be seen as the catalyst of the French Fourth Republic being replaced by de Gaulle and the Fifth Republic. Also, the Communist Party was strongly opposed to the war, claiming colonization was imperialist and bourgeoisie.Ã Ã As the communist party was the largest party in the various ruling coalition governments, this greatly weakened the governments resolve in dealing with the crisis. In addition, the generals feared that the French government would pull out of Algeria like it did in French Indo-china, thus incurring more damage to French pride as it would portray them losing to their own colonies, the people whom they consider as second-class citizens. Despite the fact that other colonial powers, Britain in particular, were already granting independence to its large colonial empire after World War 2. India, Burma and Pakistan were three such examples of colonies who gained independence after World War 2 Furthermore, the war was unpopular with the civilians. After all, this was the crown jewel in the French Empire with over 1 million French settlers, more than Morocco or Tunisia, and it was seen as vital to maintain what was known as Algerie franÃ §aise.Ã Ã This concept of Algerie franÃ §aise was, fundamentally, a concept of unity and equality between the colonist and the colony and was popularized in the 1960s by supporters who wanted to keep Algeria a French colony. However, this concept was far from stable, with the indigenous Muslims being denied political representation.Ã Ã Thus, tension was built between the mainland government and the second generation French-Algerians, not helped by the deliberate targeting of civilians with bombs, a tactic initially utilized by the French and later by the FLN.Ã Ã Furthermore, after widespread reports of the use of torture by the French Army on prisoners-of-war, the reaction in France was one of moral outrage, reduci ng support for the war even further, with renowned French philosopher and political activist Jean-Paul Satre speaking out against the violence.Ã Ã Finally, the pied-noirs, or French-Algerian citizens, feared for a negotiated peace with the FLN and thus supported the French Army against the Pflimlin government in an act of open defiance.Ã Ã In addition, the use of conscription in the war did not help its popularity, similar to the French Indo-China war before that.Ã Ã Therefore, with a lack of support back in the mainland, it reflected poorly in the governments decision-making capabilities and would cause it to decline in popularity and support. There was also much unhappiness from the pied-noirs, who felt that they were being marginalized as second-class citizens having been forced to repatriate to mainland France and were similar in status as the native Algerians.Ã Ã Therefore, over 1 million French Algerian joined the Organisation de larmÃ ©e secrete or OAS, fighting for Algeria to remain under French Rule.Ã Ã They formed a formidable fighting force, capable of engaging the French Army in hit-and-run attacks, similar to what the French faced in Indochina earlier. Overall, with the French Indo-china war that just took place earlier, it signaled the collapse of the French Empire that the Fourth Republic had struggled to hold together since the end of the war against the tide of decolonization sweeping across the globe. French Indo-China (Vietnam) War The French Indo-China War could be perceived as the start of French decolonization around the world. The war began in 1946 and ended in 1954 with France officially pulling its troops out of the country following the Geneva Convention when the French Prime Minister at the time, Pierre MendÃ ¨s France, agreed to negotiate an armistice with the Viet Minh resistance fighters. The loss of the French forces to the Viet Minh could be blamed on the unstable governmental structure. Due to the high turnover rate of governments, there was no consistent policy for the Indo-China War. For example, the Radical Party was strongly opposed to any form of French colonialism and when Prime Minister and Radical Party member MendÃ ¨s France agreed to a ceasefire and withdrawal from Indo-China with the Viet Minh, this was met with opposition from the Nationalists and the Catholics in the French Parliament in particular, the latter who was opposed to the communists. This war had a great impact on the French civilians, who saw this as the start of the fall of the French empire. Support for the war was severely lacking in mainland France, with the majority of the opposition being driven by the French Communist Party. Attempts to sabotage the war effort were made apparent by such scandals like the Henri Martin affair. Furthermore, the war was extremely costly, costing the government up to US$3million a day. Also, the handling of the war divided the already split cabinet further, with the communists leaving the ruling Tripartite alliance and weakening the cabinet further. The war also had a lasting impact on the morale of the French Army, as it would later compound with the defeat in Algeria. This loss greatly affected the pride of the French Army, still recovering from its losses in World War 2. Eventually, the commanders present in Vietnam were eventually reposted to Algeria to fight in another war against guerillas. Overall, the loss of Indo-china greatly affected French pride, having been defeated in World War 2 prior to that as well as having been on the losing side in the Korean War. Thus, this led the various commanders of the armed forces that they were being marginalised by the French government and demand a change in the head of state. Unstable structure Another given factor for the fall of the Fourth Republic was its unstable structure.Ã Ã Essentially, the French Fourth Republic and its government was formed by minority representation, which meant that no single party had a clear majority and had to form coalitions in order to rule. The result of this was that consensus was very difficult to achieve due to each party that made up the coalition having their own agenda. The main parties forming most of the coalitions were the Radical Party, who were strong opponents of French colonization, and the Socialists, who formed a coalition with the Communist Party. Despite the coalitions and alliances, individual parties still pursued their own agendas and often did not cooperate with one another. This was characterized by the members of the French Communist Party. However, as a majority of the parties consisted of ex-French Resistance members, newer politicians often held them in high esteem and were easily influenced by them.Ã [20 ]Ã 21 The Fourth Republic comprised of about 20 governments led by mixture of political parties in its 13 years in governance and was seen as a direct continuation of the Third Republic, along with all its failures. It had favored a parliamentary style of governance while Charles de Gaulle had in fact favored a presidential style of governance. This disagreement resulted in de Gaulle leaving French politics until his return to power in 1958. In comparison to the pre-World War 2 French Third Republic, the Fourth Republics structure of government was essentially the same.Ã Ã Both were parliamentary democracies and formed coalitions with other parties to form the majority needed. Thus, most of these parties were centrist in nature due to compromises to both the extreme right and extreme left. In addition, a majority of these parties consisted of extremely loose groupings of members concentrated around a few notable figures.Ã Ã This often resulted in ineffective hung parliament s due to the shifting alliances.Ã Ã Furthermore, cabinets often relied on an often temporary and conditional parliamentary majority to maintain power. Any divisions in power would often lead to a fall in the cabinet and the fluidity in which the majority often shifted its power, which in turn led to the high turnover rate of cabinets.Ã Ã A point to note is that the electoral coalitions formed were not binding contracts, but merely tactical maneuvers and as such, imposed no obligations among the parties involved to act together on legislature.Ã Ã One notable example was the when Prime Minister Guy Mollet was in office. Despite being a Socialist minister, his governments campaign in Algeria had in fact contradicted the rhetoric that the Socialist Party was adopting.Ã Ã A comparison was made between the structure of government of the French Fourth Republic and the Weimar Republic of Germany by John D. Huber and Cecilia Martinez-Gallardo in the article Cabinet Instability and the Accumulation of Experience: The French Fourth and Fifth Republics in Comparative Perspective. The article takes a rather different stand regarding the point that the alleged instability of the Fourth Republics government was more apparent than real as the key office holders more or less remained the same while the cabinets around it reformed over and over again.Ã Ã Thus, this instability is instead attributed to individual members of the cabinet, rather than the entire cabinet as a whole and that the individual accumulation of experience by the ministers served to provide a degree of stability to the cabinet.Ã Ã The above point is further endorsed by Roy Macridis in the article Cabinet Instability in the Fourth Republic (1946-1951). In the article, Macridis states that whenever a new cabinet was installed, very rarely was there a complete turnover in personnel, thus ensuring a high rate of continuation between successive cabinets and ministries despite the fact that the average cabinet lasted around six and a half months in the Fourth Republic.Ã Ã 31 However, it is also noted that despite the relative stability of the individual ministries, the cabinets under the Fourth Republic were still lacking any cohesive central decision-making process. In fact, due to the coalition structure, the various ministerial posts were distributed among the various political parties, namely the Socialists, the Radicals and the MRP (Popular Republican Movement), in accordance to how the cabinet was proportioned at the time. Thus for example, the parliamentary secretaries for the 3 different wings of the military were always divided between the 3 main political parties.Ã Ã A point to note is that the Fourth Republic was not popular with voters, with around one in two voters challenging the ability of the government. By 1951, was government was described as an addled Parliament and petering out in obscure intrigues over electoral law.Ã Ã This lack of support explains why the French people were willing to embrace a change in the head of state so quickly. This was also due to their failure to find adequate solutions to issues like unemployment, inflation and more importantly, the Algerian situation.Ã Ã Evaluation Firstly, the fall of the French Fourth Republic has been attributed to the inherent instability of the cabinets of ministers. With such a high turnover rate of cabinets, it is easy to see how the cabinet could be perceived as weak and volatile. This can be seen by the length of some of the tenures in office of some of the Prime Ministers. However in actual fact, most of the key personnel holders held on to their offices despite the changes in leadership, as noted by Roy Macridis. This lends support to the view that the Fourth Republic merely gave off an air of instability and was in fact more steadfast than what it appeared to be. But, we know that the Army itself was divided among the three political parties due to the coalition structure of government and thus the lack of unity could be seen in the course of the Algerian War, as well as the French Indochina war before that. The Algerian War suffered from a lack of cohesive leadership and battle strategy and this in turn could have led to the pervasive dissatisfaction among the generals, who felt that a change in leadership was necessary to get the job done. This in turn, led to the plan to reinstall war hero Charles de Gaulle as the Prime Minister of a new republic with a coup. Thus, this could be seen as the direct cause of the fall of the Fourth Republic as it directly resulted in the Prime Minister Pierre Pflimlin being replaced and the parliamentary democracy system being scrapped. Furthermore, the French Algerian War also caused the government to lose support of both its citizens in mainland France as well as that of the pied-noirs in Algeria due to the high casualty rate and rumors of torture. The pied-noirs in particular, were demanding independence from France and when their demands were not met by the government, they threw their weight behind the military and took over government offices in protest. Their unhappiness with the government of the Fourth Republic with the war and being forced to seek refuge in Europe was what led to the eventual uprising and support of the OAS. If the pied-noirs had not voiced their unhappiness with the present situation, the government could have just bulldozed their way through the rebels. However, the fact that they still consider Algeria to be the crown jewel of their Empire, coupled by the fact that the pied-noirs numbered nearly 1 million and were still considered by many to be Europeans, this resulted in the previous F rench government getting replaced by the popular de Gaulle, who seemed to sympathise with the plight of the Algerians. However, the unpopularity of the French Fourth Republic could have also led to its eventual collapse. The unhappiness of the population due to the three wars that occurred right after World War 2 as well as the apparent capabilities of their government could have led to their poor performance. We have to note that the Fourth Republic collapsed in 1958, but by as early as 1951, as mentioned in the article by D.M.P., nearly half the population expressed some form of unhappiness with the current government. Thus, this lack of support early on could have contributed to the fall of the Republic as a government who loses support from its people cannot hope to stay in power for long. Therefore, from the evidence above, we can conclude that the while the French Fourth Republic did suffer from some significant flaws that severely hampered its ability to govern the nation, fight multiple wars as well as manage an empire, the Algerian war did in fact drive the already split cabinet even further apart as the multiple parties in charge could not agree to one common agenda on how the Algerian War should be fought out. This in turn, directly affected the outcome of the war. Thus, the decision made by the rogue generals to implement their coup was swayed by the way the French military was locked in a stalemate with the Algerian guerillas. Presumably, if France was winning in Algeria, then the generals would not have any motive to seek a change in government. However, their coup could have been motivated by dissatisfaction with the Fourth Republic and not influenced by the outcome of the Algerian War. In that case, the fall of the government would be blamed on the very reasons why the people were so discontented with the government: its lack of a coherent structure and inability to solve the economic and social problems of France at the time such as unemployment or national debt. Furthermore, with the people of France split regarding the decision over an independent Algeria versus Algerie franÃ §aise, the ineptitude displayed by the cabinet over the Algerian War only confirmed the lack of faith that the people of France had in their government. Again, the deciding factor in this situation was the Algerian War. The war was the main issue that the people were concerned about. As with other elections, there will always be complaints about jobs, inflation and debt. However, wars are always a major point of contention as the people in a France eventually viewed the Algerian situation as a waste of money and lives. Add that to the widespread rumors of torture which was later proven to be true, it is not unreasonable to claim that the Algerian War was the main cause for the fall of the French Fourth Republic.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Mainstream economic thought of the 20th century was dominated by the principle of Ã¢â¬Ëmore is betterÃ¢â¬â¢, this thinking is dangerously misguided. Concentrating on maximizing real GNP has been brought about by economists who are working on the assumption that growth is always justified, because of the infinite wants of the population. These economists also see growth as a solution to the problems of the world today. Even those who propose Ã¢â¬Ësustainable growthÃ¢â¬â¢ are false in that they assume that it is possible to continue with the growth of the last two centuries. Some of the fallacies being put forth are growth as a solution to pollution, Ã¢â¬Å"trickle downÃ¢â¬ effect of growth needed to help the poor, and technological salvation. They feel the exponential growth of the present can continue as long as technology can keep up, and that resource efficiency can grow indefinitely so as to stabilize resource flow. By analyzing these arguments we can see their contra dictory tendencies and show that by prioritizing Ã¢â¬ËgrowthÃ¢â¬â¢ alone, the global economy and its participants will be worse off. First, there is a natural response to the word growth. It being a sense of advancement or betterment, this is not always the case. The notion of growth must always carry with it a concept of maturity. Growing beyond it would give rise to problems. For example, when a baby grows its parents are pleased and even show off to their friends at every inch and pound. However, imagine that the baby continued to grow infinitely! The parents would be concerned to say the least. The baby would outgrow its house parents and everything else it depends on for growth. Common sense tells us that there is reasonable level at which everything must grow, beyond which it is considered detrimental to itself and its surroundings. Our economy is a subset of the ecosystem we live in, and must grow to proportions that are reasonable to it. It definitely cannot continue to grow outside of it, nor should it grow to a point where it is harmful to the ecosystem. The economy being dependent upon the ecosystem mu st adhere itself to achieving a state of compatibility with environment. Logic follows then, what is the optimal level of economic output? How do we decide what level should be maintained. We certainly cannot use the standard of the average american. In order to get that, we would have to increase the world economy by a multiple of seven! As it stands now human being use up a little more than a fourth of the worlds net primary product of photosynthesis.
Friday, July 19, 2019
From Taco Bell to Tanzania I lived until the age of 18 in Lacey, Washington, a small town made up mostly of the strip malls and Taco Bell fast food restaurants that line Interstate 5 from Portland to Seattle. Very few of my high school classmates left this town, and instead moved back into the service industries and lower rungs of state bureaucracy where their parents had worked before them. For those of us who wanted to leave, the only routes, at the time, seemed to be the military or higher education. Since, by middle school, I had been tracked into college prep courses, I assumed that I would go to college but did not know where or what to study. In our garage, my grandfather kept back issues of National Geographic dating to the 1920's. The summer before starting high school, he paid me to dust them and it was then that I discovered something called "Anthropology" which, when studied, appeared to lead to a more interesting life in a more interesting place. For my Freshman Physical Science course's "SCIENCE CAREERS DAY," I wrote "Anthropology" down as my career goal, though I knew nothing at the time about the discipline besides the name. I likewise chose a college which I knew nothing about - Lewis and Clark in Oregon - because the brochure mentioned that there were several dozen overseas programs available through the school. Though I could have gone to India, Indonesia, Ecuador, Australia, Korea or many other countries, I decided to apply for Kenya because the year before I had read a book about nomads and the program included a unit on nomadic pastoralism and ecology. After rereading this book much later, I discovered it to be an incredibly sappy, melodramatic and condescending ... ...conflicts in other areas of social life. In the summer of 1994, I had the opportunity to travel to Tanzania on an SSRC Predissertation Grant to begin to establish affiliation, research clearance and possible fieldsites. I have also made contacts at the district level with officials and academics in the area. Though I already speak Kiswahili, the national language of Tanzania, I also have made arrangements to study Maa, the language of the Kisongo Maasai and WaArusha who live in the district in which I will be working. I am looking forward to working in Tanzania not only because of its political stability and unique history as a nation, but also because of the opportunity to generate information about children and education in pastoral communities there, a topic which is still under-researched despite the restructuring of national curriculum in recent years.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
According to the Victim oriented multi-disciplinary responses to statutory rape training guide, Ã¢â¬Å"Law enforcement often assigns statutory rape cases a much lower priority than incest and forcible rape cases with young children. There is a belief among criminal justice officials that investigation and arrest are a waste of time because prosecutors will not prosecute except in most egregious casesÃ¢â¬ (Elstein & Smith, 1998). Statutory rape laws should be just as much of a priority as child abuse and forcible rape. Throwing away statutory rape cases is not effective regardless of how hard it is to prosecute. A minor does not know what is best for him or her it should not matter whether or not the victim is willing to testify. If proof that a minor is indeed involved in a cases where his or her partner is considered an adult by law then that person should be convicted. It is hard to prosecute statutory rape cases because most of the Ã¢â¬ËvictimsÃ¢â¬â¢ are not willing to test ify against their partners. The minors involved in the cases are usually in the relationship because they want to be not becaus...
The first reason we support mercy killing is it does relieve the pain that the patient suffer. For patients that terminally ill, there no need to make any actions to prolong their life because this may make them struggle and suffer in the last moment of their life. All those chemotherapy and medicines may prolong the patient life but also torture them physically and mentally as these treatments have side effects on human body. It is quite depressed when seeing the patients having all these treatments. It is a way for the patient to release themselves from all these pain. Another reason we support it is it will reduce the burden of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family especially from the economically aspects. From the day the patient started to hospitalise, the medical fees for the patient started to count into the bill. For patient that is not capable to carry on these medical fees, they will feel stress to find money to pay for this large amount of bill. They may start to think of selling their own properties and even loan money from loan sharks, just to pay the bill. The medical fee in a hospital is not cheap, if the patient stays one more day in the hospital, the family need to more money to the hospital. Even the patient will also feel stress when know his or her family members are funding for the medical bills. The third reason is euthanasia can save life. For example, a coma patient who has laid on bed for about 10 years. For this 10 years, he is occupying a hospital bed, medical equipment and medicine that sustain his life. As we know, almost every day, the spaces in hospital are inadequate for incoming patients. Instead of letting the coma patient to suffer and wasting a bed space, mercy killing an incurable patient can definitely save lots of life. Besides, if the organs of the patient are still functioning well, his organs can donate to other patients who are in need and have higher probability to survive. In short, euthanasia not only bring the grief suffered by a patient to an end, but this method too, can save many others lives. This reason should compensate the ethics problem that the public are discussing for decades.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Identify THREE select indicators relevant to previous(predicate) babeishness reading and discuss why they atomic number 18 beta for children, parents, and/or society. 300 words. The eldest whole tone indicator relevant to early childishness educational activity would be people. totallyow your child learn in an surroundings where the instructors and assistants are expert, salutary-trained and the majority of them hold qualifications in the area. They should be able to fully represent your childs involveinesss, communicate well with them ensuring they train your child olfaction off the hook(predicate) and comfortable organism around them.They should withal be trusted and respected by staff, parents and children. The place or environs would be the second indicator. The education surroundings should make all children feel welcome unheeding of the cultural, ethnic or language background. They should be able to provide a renewal of, materials, equipment and break away activity arranged to countenance children to learn. A bear on pop turn updoor(a) environment that challenges and motivates children to explore, guide on and play is as well as strategic.An environment where they feel safe, and where parents derriere see their child, and feel comfortable banging they are there. They should be able to feel secure in the environment they are in and to know their children washbowl only benefit from be there. Programme the third indicator. A spirit learn programme should provide a great deal of learning opportunities in a all-inclusive range of different areas (reading, water play, spine play, dress-up, science, accessible play). A variety of activities both working in small groups or individual interactions with teachers.Parents should be able to BEd111 under social organization to archaean puerility Education opinion 20120778 Tourmaline Munday- make 2 to understand themselves or so what their child is learning, havi ng good communication with the sum of money employees, knowing what is passing game on and apprehensiveness their ways and so forth an eye out universe a parent and dread the centres way. Teachers should always build trusting relationships with parents bandage always respecting and supporting different families cultures and languages. persona List(ASPECTS OF QUALITY IN advance(prenominal) CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Valerie N. Podmore and Anne Meade With Anne Kerslake Hendricks, 2000) (Collins Concise Dictionary, 2001, p. 1224). (Gibbs, C. (2006). To be a teacher Journeys towards authenticity. Auckland Pearson Education. ) BEd111 entree to aboriginal Childhood Education judgement 20120778 Tourmaline Munday- cooper 3 Identify TWO early puerility services in your community. short explain their history and then equalise and contrast their philosophies, educational goals and the strategies employed to fall upon these goals.450 words. Montessori is a doctrine and method of educat ion pioneered by the Italian educationalist Dr maria Montessori (The scratch Montessori school opened in 1909, the archetypical Waldorf school in 1919 and the first Playcentre in the 1930s) Montessori casa dei bambini or childrens home was first opened in San Lorenzo, Rome, Italy. Dr maria Montessori recognised that the first six age of a childs invigoration are the most important. Dr Montessori, trialled many materials and activities, precisely kept only those to which the children were spontaneously and repeatedly drawn.Playcentre began in 1941 primarily as a support service to women left pinnacle children alone due to deviateners being forth with the Second World War. Lack of embark and low family incomes were the reality for many women. Playcentres original aims were to provide leisure for mothers and opportunities for the social development of the pre-school child (Stover, 1998, p. 3). Playcentre is a stimulating environment, they provide a divers(a) and loaded rang e of experiences, unlimited unloose play across all 16 areas of play, and a child initiated curriculum.Montessori has a trustworthy body structure and is based on their confess philosophical system unlike playcentre. Playcentre is a parent run co-operative it relies heavily on parental stimulation, friendship and support. Montessori aim is to provide an environment with structure and activities that meet the inescapably of the children and by good- impressioning them freedom to move and act inside it, it was said that Dr Montessori had revealed the true nature of the child. Their philosophy is aimed for Children to be advocated to be unwaveringly grounded in reality before being ex thrumd to fantasy.Montessori classrooms are very BEd111 inception to previous(predicate) Childhood Education opinion 20120778 Tourmaline Munday- cooper 4 quiet, as children are deeply absorbed in their work. They input this by managing the classroom materials into six areas (Practical animat eness Exercises, Sensorial Material, Art, Mathemartics, language, cultural subjects, and also somatogenic is brought into their quotidian routine). Playcentre however is marked by a stimulating environment, providing a diverse and rich range of experiences, unlimited free play across all 16 areas of play, and a child initiated curriculum.Their views and goals are to shape up childrens learning through with(predicate) play, Family closeness ( based on the impressiveness of parents as educators of their own children) They like to View children as people who are strong and heart-to-heart and bay window make their own choices nigh how and where to play (childinitiated play). Playcentre teachers are trained parents who give birth quite a playscripts on approach and implement learning, using a lot of open ended questions to fly the coop childrens thinking. Montessori and playcentre have different methods. some(prenominal) focus on the wellbeing of children, and facilitate pr omote them to learn and grow through many different approaches.The key departure between Playschool and Montessori is that at play group the whole family joins, rather than it just being a provider of education for the child. refer List (Pre-schoolers Preschool Education Types of Early Childhood Care KYLIE VALENTINE 2010) (Stover, 1998, p. 3). May, H. (2002, Winter). Early puerility parcel out and education in Aotearoa crude Zealand An overview of history, policy and curriculum. McG distress Journal of Education BEd111 Introduction to Early Childhood Education Assessment 20120778 Tourmaline Munday- Cooper 5.Discuss THREE of the by-line significant factors which were covered in this assembly line and that promote health and preventive in early childhood centres and explain the section of the early childhood practitioner in promoting and implementing these factors 1. Providing a safe environment 2. Providing a hygienic and wanton environment 3. Identifying and responding t o childhood illness Providing a safe environment Being a teacher, means ever observing children and setting rubber eraser rules for them to make up a safe centre. This is only part of the process.Teachers must always watch for waste situations. Toys, equipment, electrical appliances, hot water, and killing supplies can pose danger to children. Centre vehicles and the construction itself can also be dangerous to children. As well as outdoor activities, certain heights and lengths of equipment direct to be suitable for the environment as these pose a danger to children also. Exploration is an important part of a childs growth and development, and increased independence. However, that exploration should pile place in an environment that is as free of hazards as possible (MoH, 1997, p.71). ).The teachers role in identifying and removing or minimising potential hazards is vital. (See Moe, 2008, HS12-16, p. 19) A teachers first job should be to look at the environment where the ch ildren are going to play first thing in the morning, if there is anything unusual, broken or out of place that could be jeopardize. Toy safety is a nonher, choosing the items correctly the item itself, size, if it is appropriate for their age, etc. Picking safe toys and materials greatly sinks the risk of serious injury. Small things can energize serious harm, e. g. choking.However as a teacher, you must make out children at all times when using BEd111 Introduction to Early Childhood Education Assessment 20120778 Tourmaline Munday- Cooper 6 the toys/playing. Creating rules for the children helps implement the importance of safety to them as well. Providing a hygienic and clean environment In an Early childhood centre it is essential that all equipment is cleaned casual/weekly/monthly everything is to be hygienise/disinfected especially With children having access to all sorts of equipment daily (putting toys in their mouths, several hands woful the toys etc.) It is very imp ortant for learning environments to be clean and safe as Germs can easily spread refrain among children who play together. (Air, coughing, sneezing, Body waste and fluids, faeces, urine, saliva, mucus, skin, wounds, parasite, Blood, viruses and bacteria). Teachers should encourage children to also get involved with person-to-person hygiene, getting them to blow their perfumes on tissues, washables hands before and after eating, or using the bathroom, this shows them how to help stay clean. The importance of effective hand-washing for educators and children cannot be over-emphasised.Hand-washing is essential spare-time activity animal handling, rubbish removal, outdoor activities, nose blowing, toileting and preceding food handling and pulmonary tuberculosis (MoH, 1997) There are more strategies teachers regularize to keep a safe effectual environment such as when a new child starts they talk rough immunisation (immunisation charts) and excursion if a child is ill. These hyg iene practices can likely reduce the spread of germs or uncleanliness in learning settings and it is essential to have a cleaning schedule.Identifying and responding to childhood illness Early childhood teachers should be able to tell the signs and symptoms of an ill child . They should provide appropriate care for a child who is unwell. Sick children are usually have no spare-time activity in play, have BEd111 Introduction to Early Childhood Education Assessment 20120778 Tourmaline Munday- Cooper 7 little energy, short set and upset, may want to be held and comforted, fever, purge or diarrhoea. Parents should be notified, so they can come and collect their child.It is important to single out the child from the group to prevent infecting others. A staff member must supervise the child closely, as a new-made childs condition can change rapidly and they may need urgent attention. Children should always be reminded to also help stop spreading illness, they need to be given an ide a, they may not understand the detail but as simple as reminding them to put their hand over their mouth when they sneeze or cough, grabbing a tissue when needed etc. Staff must always compel hygienic care.Staff with Appropriate first aid should be administered to help with a situation where a child needs tending too e. g. If they are hurt, and need wounds cleaned and banded. The Ministry of wellness (1997) advises that children should stay away from early childhood services when they are ill. Depending on your childcare provider they to have their own policy towards the issue. Teachers are not expect to diagnose conditions, that is what the doctors are for. However, having fellowship of how certain illnesses manifest, spread, and incubate is very important.Having a first aid certificate is a corroboratory in the childcare industry having the knowledge of what to do in certain situations, it benefits the children and the centre. fictitious character List Auckland Regional Public Health Service. (May 2010). Health & safety guidelines for early childhood centres. Retrieved 19th September, 2011, fromhttp//www. arphs. govt. nz/Portals/0/Health%20Information/PDFs/ECC_HealthSafet yGuidelines. pdf childcare illness from http//www. careforkids. com. au/articlesv2/article. asp? ID=71 (Ministry of Health, 1997).