Friday, May 31, 2019
Eudora Weltys The Ponder Heart as Dramatic monologueDramatic Monologue, Edna is defined as the filter through which we see everything.What we commonly call point of view-- is the nexus of our interpretation of thenovels characters, events, and thematic significance(Nissen 1, emphasis added). consort to Nissen Weltys narrators argon often ignored or misconstrued by critics.In The Ponder Heart, Edna Earle is an exemplary storyteller at her best and at herworst defined by critics as bossy, narrow-minded and dumb (Nissen 2, emphasisadded). Edna Earle fits none of these negative lashes. She is a Southern woman whocares for her family and community and tries to put them in their best dismount for her auditory modality. The form of dramatic monologue has long been a way for authors to givetheir audience an inside view by allowing us to be voyeurs we are non part of the story,but simply folks who are passing by the actions at hand. With this genre tag already inplace, we bring to our rea ding trustworthy expectations. In a sense, we never read a storyfor the first time we bring into our reading the expectations that previous encounterswith the genre have created (Nissen 2).Nissen sees Edna Earle as set herself second in the line of importance to thestory she tells with Grandpa Ponder and Uncle Daniel as the primary forces that shapeher narrative. She sacrifices her own needs in order to worry those of Grandpa and UncleDaniel. That she has been taken for granted must be painfully clear to the narrator aswell as her audience (Nissen 9). In this way, she arouses sympathy from her audiencemuch in the same way as if we were passing by her on the street while she told her story to a friend. We hear her, but are not free to help her. We are strangers in herworld and cannot affect the outcome of her circumstances.In closing, Nissen rewrites the end to reflect the importance of Edna Earles voice asnarrator. Id the like to warn you again, Edna Earle may try to give you so mething--maythink shes got something to give. If she does, do me a favor. Make out like you acceptit. Tell her thank you (Nissen 9).I hold with Nissens article, but believe he could have stated his points moreconcisely. This article was long for the amount he really had to say. There is clearly no parameter the point that The Ponder Heartis a monologue, yet he spends three pages
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The State of Despair in American Beauty In life sentence, everyone must murder choices. Choices give an individual the freedom to decide upon the path to which they will follow. Since its beginnings, the film making industry has focused on showing the direct birth between the choices that people make and the resulting consequences they must face. In the movie American Beauty, the character of Lester Burnham must make many important choices that could either lead to his net comfort, or draw him further into his despair.In the movie American Beauty, it is evident that Lester Burnham is in a state of despair. Lesters dull and monotonous voice introduces the earshot to his daily routine of life. When Lester declares plain and simply, This is my neighborhood, this is my street, this is my life, he exposes the lifelessness and unhappiness to which he has become accustomed. The hopeless tone that Lester has set continues when he cynically comments, jerking finish off in the shower wi ll be the high point of my day. He realizes his family life is no better when he becomes aware that both his disdainful married woman and his troubled daughter consider him a gigantic loser. It is easy to recognize and understand Lesters disheartenment through analysis and symbolic car scene. In this scene, Lester sits slouched down in the back seat with a look of emptiness while his daughter Jane sits up front, next to his wife Caroline who is driving the car. The symbolism is shown through Carolyn driving the car, as she drives the family (especially Lester). She has evolved into the decision-maker, and leader of the Burnham family. Sitting in the backseat, Lester avoids further conflict with his wife, leading him to become an even unhappier and more desperate person. It is understand adequate to(p) why Lester feels like a sedated visitor in his own life. It is also easy to empathize with Lester when he states that he feels in many ways already dead. For Lester, his life at elab orate is nothing better than his life at home. After fourteen years on the job, Lester is asked by an efficiency expert at work to write a memo justifying his position. This requires making the first of several choices, which will ultimately affect his future happiness. Should he justify his job and continue to bid for his family or choose freedom and a new life? To answer this question the audience must examine... .... This is the first time in the movie in which it is apparent that he wants to know his own family and is just working out how to go about doing it. But it also allows Lester to be well-chosen, happy for Jane to experience the go around thing he once had a true loving relationship with Carolyn. Lester finds himself not sad that he is now missing that loving relationship, but happy that he got the chance to experience it at one point. By the end of the movie, Lester actually seems sincerely happy in his thoughts, in his mind and in his life. This is the happiness th at he has been searching for all along.The discovery of happiness and the extinction of despair are two of the greatest feats known to humans. Everyone chooses which of the two will ultimately ruler their life, but sometimes life itself can get in the way. Lester Burnham is a man with limits, a man without the freedom to know himself, but with the ability to curb these boundaries. Throughout this movie Lester is taken down a path to which hedonism is the roadblock and morality is the hidden passage. For some the choice will never be able to be made, but to Lester, life was much too beautiful to ignore the possibilities.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Hooligans Hundreds of English fans have been departed from Belgium after scenes of mass violence in Belgian cities and football authorities have threatened to expel the English team from the competition if there is another outbreak of the English DiseaseThis was an article dated 20 June 2000 written by an English journalist. It is obvious from this article that world is facing a great problem nowadays.Actually it would be wrong to use the stipulation nowadays because the English Disease namely malicious mischief have been a problem for many centuries.There are many things to say on hooliganism but first it would be better to start with its definition. Hooliganism doesnt have a standard definition. But it can be defined as destruction of properties or injury to persons, sometimes involving theft, whether by a gang or a small group of young people. Hooliganism is characterised as a lack of self-control, love of malicious mischief and idleness passing into dishonest and crime. Hooliga ns are usually made up of boys and young men, aged between 15 and 25 and their main targets are other groups, who only differ from them in their being composed of fans of another football team.And another interesting fact more or less hooligans is that they consider themselves to be true fans they support the team for better or worse, they create the highly praised atmosphere inside stadiums. Their main interest does not count much to see brilliant football but to see their team win.As I mentioned in the beginning football hooliganism is known as the English Disease but it has been a problem throughout Europe especially in Germany, Holland, Italy and Belgium as well as in the UK. Also Greece, Czech Republic, Denmark, Austria and Turkey witnessed these disturbances in football matches.There are a lot of work done all around the world to avoid the harm hooligans turn in to the environment and themselves. European Parliament and the National Parliaments of the European Union made eff ort to avoid the violence throughout Europe. European Council issued a report on hooliganism September 1999 and tried to take further steps on this problem.After all the work done by various sociologists and initiatives of the European Institutions fluent it is difficult to observe decline in violence in European Stadiums.To make it clear that World is suffering enough from hooliganism for many years... ...cisive measures like banning Britain from football games. I want to end my essay with an article written by Graham L. Jones in 26.06.2000. This article will be implemental in making a summary of the works about hooliganism.The time for talk is over Ban the Brits Dont wait another minute. will the possible quarterfinal game. Send Britain from Euro 2000 back to home. Yes, its my own country Im talking about. And yes, its the team and players that I want to see stand the price for the absolute ineffectiveness of English Government and English judiciary doing nothing about hooli ganismBibliographyHOLT R. 1989.Sport and the British. Oxford Oxford University conspireKERR H. 1994.Understanding Soccer Hooliganism. Buckingam Open University PressTAYLOR R. 1992.Football and its Fans. Leicester Leicester Universty PressResources from Internetnoviolence.com/archivesdailynews.yahoo.com-22.06.2000bbc.com- Hooliganism made in England but big abroad-26.02.1998titonet.com/hooligansthesportjournal.com- A developmental view of soccer hooliganism by A.J Harleyintorminc.co.uk- Hooliganism-a political footballeserver.org- Playing for England by Paul Smith
The Age of European Exploration The age of exploration was filled with unafraid voyagers andconquistadores from all over Europe, much like today, there was muchcompetition for land rights. The main disputes were between Spain andPortugal. And these are the representatives from not only these twocountries, but surrounding ones as well. Christopher Columbus was a sea captain from Genoa. He first triedto convince Portugal, then Spain to sponsor a voyage to Asia across theAtlantic. Columbus thought that the voyage would take two months, otherssaid four months, but he left with enough food and supplies for only twomonths. He landed in the West Indes (Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba) when the twomonths of supplies ran out. Their voyage began on August 3, 1492, fromPalos, Spain and ended on October 12 when land was sighted at the Americas. Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian that equal the Medici Bank inSpain, chartered the coastline of Central America and described this as theM undus Novus, meaning New World. In 1507, a German carto...
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Within reading the first few pages of tomahawk, I knew I was going to enjoy the book. Hatchet was a story about bravery, courage, and strength. I enjoyed reading this great novel by Gary Paulsen.The story begins when Brian, a thirteen-year-old boy, is traveling on an airplane. Brian is from the city, and is traveling to Canada to visit his Father. The move is in the Canadian wilderness and is most important because Brians adventure would have been impossible in a city. Brian was very upset about his parents separation, but was excited to be visiting his buzz off. However The Secret, as Brian refers to it, is always in the back of his mind. Brian has seen his mother with another man. He wants desperately to tell his father, but knows his father would be crushed. I think that this situation is something that could happen in real life. Brian is totally distraught. If I were in his place, I would be also. But instead of disturbing about telling my father, I think I would be worrying about confronting my mother with the situation. I would feel I needed to stop the office before my father did find out.Brians trip is very unexpectedly interrupted, when the planes pilot has a heart attack. Brian tries to continue the flight, with help from hands over the radio. Unfortunately, the radio dies, and the plane runs out of gas. I think this part of the story, is very unrealistic. If the plane were supposed to make it all the way to the destination, why would it unawares run out of gas? Also, why would the radios suddenly become broken? I realize this was the whole point of the novel but it doesnt face realistic.Brian then spends exactly Fifty-four days by an L-shaped lake. He faces many conflicts. He is put in a situation like the Survivor telecasting show. He needs to find a way to survive, unlike on the show, by himself. He needed protection from the weather, so he built shelter. He was hungry, so he hunted for food. He discovered how to catch fish, rabbit, and d iscovered bushes of nuts. He also had a bad encounter with Poison berries, as he called them, which made his stomach sick. Brian also had encounters with wild animals, such as, a porcupine, and a moose. Brian needed warmth, so he made fire, without any matches.
Within reading the first few pages of Hatchet, I knew I was going to enjoy the book. Hatchet was a report ab discover bravery, courage, and strength. I enjoyed reading this great novel by Gary Paulsen.The story begins when Brian, a thirteen-year-old boy, is traveling on an airplane. Brian is from the city, and is traveling to Canada to visit his Father. The setting is in the Canadian wilderness and is most important because Brians adventure would have been impossible in a city. Brian was very upset about his parents separation, but was excited to be visiting his commence. However The Secret, as Brian refers to it, is always in the back of his mind. Brian has seen his mother with another man. He wants desperately to tell his father, but knows his father would be crushed. I think that this situation is something that could happen in real life. Brian is totally distraught. If I were in his place, I would be also. But instead of worrying about verbalize my father, I think I would be worrying about confronting my mother with the situation. I would feel I needed to stop the affair before my father did find out.Brians trip is very unexpectedly interrupted, when the planes pilot has a heart attack. Brian tries to continue the flight, with help from men over the radio set. Unfortunately, the radio dies, and the plane runs out of gas. I think this part of the story, is very unrealistic. If the plane were supposed to make it all the way to the destination, why would it suddenly run out of gas? Also, why would the radios suddenly become broken? I realize this was the whole point of the novel but it doesnt seem realistic.Brian then spends only Fifty-four days by an L-shaped lake. He faces many conflicts. He is put in a situation like the Survivor television show. He inescapably to find a way to survive, unlike on the show, by himself. He needed protection from the weather, so he built shelter. He was hungry, so he hunted for food. He discovered how to catch fish, rab bit, and discovered bushes of nuts. He also had a bad encounter with Poison berries, as he called them, which made his stand out sick. Brian also had encounters with wild animals, such as, a porcupine, and a moose. Brian needed warmth, so he made fire, without any matches.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Alexander popes Essay on Man and Voltaires Candied espouse opposing views on how conclude should be used during their time. They had varying opinions about taking homos breeding in general with Pope adopting a pessimistic view of life while Voltaire expounded on scathing remarks about things and events which he observed. Pope elucidated that he had two origins for piece of writing his essay and that was first, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, twain strike the reader more strongly at first and be more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason was because he knew that he could express himself more using the poetic style instead of prose itself. First, Pope uses this reasoning ability to work on his references and regard for God as sound as His great domain. It was a requirement then that the writers would regard the religious authority in such a high regard. It seems that Pope uses reason in come in to d headspring on the fruitlessness an d meaninglessness of life. Pope reasons that this maze of life has a reason for being so and believes that there is a visualise for everything and that there is no haphazardness in what happens to man A mighty mazeBut not without a plan a wild, where weeds and conflates promiscuous shoot Or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the open, what the covert yield born(p) in 1694 to a middle-class family in Paris, Francois-Marie Aroused, later kn declare as Voltaire, grew up at a time when the majority of the people in France lived in abject poverty. When he came of age, Voltaire witnessed the iron-fist rule of the aristocracy, and at the same time, the spread of the Enlightenment and its ideas of beity and basic human rights, as well as the importance of reason and scientific objectivity.It is not surprising then that he entrust devote his time writing biting satire which eventu aloney garnered him a solid constitution in France. So scathing were some of his writings that it caught the ire of its target, the government, which unhesitatingly meted out punishments, ranging from exile to imprisonment. In fact, it was during his incarceration in the infamous Bastille that he acquired his nom de plume. Thus, he uses reason in other kind of biting way in order to effect changes.Aside from the government, Voltaire also criticized the church with equal fervor and in with perfect reason he could ever think of. Indeed, he became a lifelong champion of the poor and the downtrodden, and used the power of the pen to further his cause, writing with a rare kind of passion against both(prenominal) tyranny and religious persecution. In the 1750s, greatly dismayed by the injustice and disaster that surrounded him, Voltaire organize out to write what would become his signature work, Candied, where he simultaneously criticized the nobility and the Church, and the peoples misguided optimism (Spark Notes).Candied, the protagoni st of the novel was an illegitimate child of a German baron who grew up under the tutelage of the philosopher Dr. Pan gloss who taught him about unconditional, and often misguided, optimism It is demonstrable that things cannot be other than they are, for since everything is do to serve an end, everything inevitably serves the best end. Observe noses were made to support spectacles, hence we have spectacles. Legs, as anyone can plainly see, were made to be breeched, and so we have breeches.. . . Consequently, those who say everything is well are uttering mere stupidities they should say everything is for the best (p. 2). The philosophy, thus, blockages out the perverted idea during Voltaires time that all thingsincluding all human sufferingis assort of a cosmic plan, and one must not question whatever tragedy comes his way, for to do so is tantamount to questioning Gods plan. baffle another way, since God is perfect, then he must have created a ball that is no less than the b est of all possible worlds. In the meantime, Candied deplorable in love with the barons daughter, Lady Cunegonde, but the blossoming affair was cut short when the baron caught them kissing. He kicked the young Candide out of his house, and so began the long list of Candides misfortunes which collectively challenged his conviction about the best of all possible worlds. His experiencesand later, those of Dr. Panglosscould serve as proof to the notorious Malcolms equity which states that if something can go wrong it will.This is how Voltaire was able to parody Dr. Pangloss philosophy first, his philosophy is proven false by real-world evidence and second, Pangloss philosophy ultimately encourages com orchestratency toward all that is wrong in the world. At one ridiculous scene, when Dr. Pangloss benefactor, the Anabaptist Jacques, was drowning in the bay of Lisbon, the philosopher prevented Candide from trying to rescue him by insisting that the bay of Lisbon had been specially sop py so that the Anabaptist might drown in them (p. 13).One could also draw from this event that people like Pangloss are ludicrously fatalistic to a point that there is no reason to make any effort to put matters into ones own hands, and to change things that are evil. Voltaire was profoundly critical of the Churchs beliefs as can be seen in his literary works Candide. He draws on this reasoning ability in order to refer to legion(predicate) things around him just as when Pope makes reference to presumptuous man. He uses his reasoning again in order to look at the mysteries that are presented to him. so say not Mans imperfect, Heavn in fault, Say rather Mans as perfect as he ought His knowledge measurd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Meanwhile, it was at about this time that more philosophies claimed that reason could be used in order to explain everything. Reasoning ability was placed at a high pedestal explaining that people can make the world a better place to live in and Voltaire uses reason again to counteract this reasoning.He is not given to such optimism, preferring instead to reason that he doubts that there is ever a chance of people securing happiness (1-2). Voltaires reasoning was a bit odd because in his failure to reason out well, he instead adopted the belief that true happiness can only be experienced in an unreal world. (42) lamenting the fact that optimism is a mania for saying things are well when one is in he. (40). Thus, Voltaire uses reasoning in order to satirize the foolishness of believing and being optimistic.Of the writers during the Enlightenment period, Voltaire was one writer who criticized the Church with equal fervor. Indeed, he became a lifelong champion of the poor and the downtrodden, and used the power of the pen to further his cause, writing with a rare kind of passion against both tyranny and religious persecution. In the 1750s, greatly dismayed by the injustice and disaster that surro unded him, Voltaire set out to write what would become his signature work, Candide, where he criticized the nobility and the Church, pointing out the peoples misguided optimism (Spark Notes).The philosophy, thus, points out the perverted idea during Voltaires time that all thingsincluding all human sufferingis part of a cosmic plan, and one must not question whatever tragedy comes his way, for to do so is tantamount to questioning Gods plan. Put another way, since God is perfect, then he must have created a world that is no less than the best of all possible worlds. Later on, Candide meets Martin, an extremum opposite of Dr. Pangloss in that he is a categorical pessimist who finds the world utterly mad and abominable (p.75) where one can find very little sexual morality or happiness (p. 77). Indeed, this philosophy is more effective at explaining real-world experiences than Pangloss, but it too has its flaws. Thus, Martin fails when he predicts that Candides valet trusted with mi llions in gold will surely betray his master out of greed. And like Pangloss, Martin is seen as somebody who does not assume a proactive role in changing the world for the better, for after all, he abides by the idea that man is bound to live either in misery or in boredom.In effect, Voltaire demonstrates that both supreme optimism and absolute pessimism are nothing more than simple abstractions that defies reality. Voltaire shows a pessimistic view of human nature in Candide. To do this he used an complex number perfect worldEl Doradowhere Candide lived in for a short time. Inaccessible to outsiders, the kingdom of El Dorado is full of just and peaceful people who pay no attention to jewels and gold that lay scattered everywhere.But rather than tolerate in the perfect world of El Dorado, Candide has acquired a greed that ultimately made him decide to leave the place, in order to return to the imperfect world where he could live off the jewels he has taken from El Dorado. He said , If we remain here, we shall be only as the other inhabitants whereas if we return to our own world with but a dozen of sheep laden with the pebbles of El Dorado, we shall be richer than all the kings of europium and we may easily recover Lady Cunegonde (p. 52).However, misfortune move to follow him, and culminates in his reunion with his beloved Cunegonde, who, alas, has turned unbearably ugly due to her own share of difficulties. In the end, Candide learns that practical action seems to be the only antidote to human suffering. This he learned when he met a humble old man who, with the help of his children, is content and happy. He told Candide, Labor holds off three great evils tedium, vice and poverty (p. 103). Taking this advice, Candide and his group set themselves to exercise their various talents (e. g.Cunegonde continued to be very ugly, but she became an excellent pastry cook) and their small farm yielded good crops. Indeed, both Pope and Voltaire, being masters at reaso n, utilized this to their reward during their time.WORKS CITEDCandide. Spark Notes online. 2004. Retrieved June 10, 2008 at http//www. sparknotes. com/ lit/candide Pope, Alexander. Essay on Man and Other Poems. Dover Publications New Ed edition (June 16, 1994) Voltaire. Candide. (1759). London Penguin Books. 1997. Alexander Popes Essay on Man and Voltaires Candide adopted opposing views on how reason should be used
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Why is the great warrior and Mongolianianian icon Genghis Khan perceive as a cataclysmal and genocidal warlord? Why is there a negative perception about him in spite of his achievements and glories?Genghis Khan was a political and army leader of Mongolia. He is revered as the greatest Mongolian ever born. He is credited with uniting the nomadic Mongol tribes and creating the Mongol empire, the largest contiguous empire in World History.The chronicler Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani left a description of Genghis Khan, written when Genghis Khan was in his later yearsGenghis Khan was a man of t tout ensemble stature, of energetic build, robust in body, the hair on his face scanty and turned white, with cats eyes, possessed of dedicated energy, discernment, genius, and understanding, awe-striking, a butcher, just, resolute, an over thrower of enemies, intrepid, sanguinary, and cruel. The Mongol Empire finish up ruling, or at least briefly conquering, large parts of modern day China, Mong olia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Moldova, South Korea, North Korea, and Kuwait under his military rule.He was not only a great warrior but besides a great ruler. He created the Yassa code which was the military and civil code for Mongolian Empire. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. There were tax exemptions for ghostly figures and so to some extent teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance to a large degree because it was generally indifferent to religious beliefs.Genghis Khan had a lot of virtues worthy of a true leader and statesman. Simplicity, honesty and loyalty were the cornerstones of his life.Yet, accounts of Genghis Khans life atomic number 18 marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamuqa (who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol tribes) and Wang Khan (his and his fathers ally), his son Jochi, and problems with the most important Shaman who was allegedly trying break him up with brother Qasar who was serving Genghis Khan loyally. Many modern scholars doubt that all of the conspiracies existed and suggest that Genghis Khan was inclined to paranoia.He was largely tolerant of religions. The exception was when religious groups challenged the state. For example Ismaili Muslims that resisted the Mongols were exterminated.In Iraq and Iran, he is looked on as a destructive and genocidal warlord who caused enormous damage and destruction. Similarly, in Afghanistan and Pakistan (along with other non-Turkic Muslim countries) he is not looked with favor though some are ambivalent. It is believed that the Hazara of Afghanistan is posterity of a large Mongol garrison stationed therein.Nevertheless, the invasions of Baghdad and Samarkand caused voltaic pile murders, for ex ample, and much of southern Khuzestan was completely destroyed. His descendant Hulagu Khan destroyed much of Irans northern part. Among the Iranian messs he is regarded as one of the most despised conquerors of Iran, along with Alexander and Tamerlane. In much of Russia, Ukraine, Poland and Hungary, Genghis Khan, his descendants and the Mongols and/or Tartars are generally depict as causing considerable damage and destruction. Presently Genghis Khan, his descendants, his generals and in general the Mongols are remembered for their ferocious military, toughness, ruthless and destructive conquests in much of the world in history books.In military strategy, Genghis Khan generally preferred to offer opponents the chance to submit to his rule without a fight and become vassals by sending tribute, accepting residents, contributing troops. He guaranteed them protection only if they abided by the rules under his administration and domain, but his and others policy was mass destruction and murder if he encountered a resistance.For example David Nicole states in The Mongol Warlords, terror and mass extermination of anyone opposing them was a well tested Mongol tactic. In such cases he would not give an alternative but ordered immense collective slaughter of the population of resisting cities and destruction of their property, usually by burning it to the ground.Only the skilled engineers and artists were spared from death and maintained as slaves. Documents written during or just after Genghis Khans reign say that after a conquest, the Mongol soldiers looted, pillaged, and raped however, the Khan got the first pick of the beautiful women. Some troops who submitted were incorporated into the Mongol system in order to expand their manpower this also allowed the Mongols to absorb new technology, manpower, knowledge and skill for use in military campaigns against other possible opponents.There also were instances of mass slaughter even where there was no resistance, espe cially in Northern China where the vast majority of the population had a long history of accepting nomadic rulers. Many superannuated sources described Genghis Khans conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale, causing radical changes in the demographics of Asia. For example, over much of Central Asia speakers of Iranian languages were replaced by speakers of Turkic languages.According to the works of Iranian historian Rashid al-Din, the Mongols killed more than 70,000 people in Merv and more than a million in Nishapur. China suffered a drastic objurgate in population during 13th and 14th centuries. For instance, before the Mongol invasion, unified China had approximately 120 million inhabitants after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. How more of these deaths were attributable directly to Genghis Khan and his forces are unclear, as are the highly generalized numbers pool themselves. In addition, some modern s cholars question the validity of such estimates, since the methodology of the 1300 census likely underestimated the population. citationneededHis campaigns in Northern China, Central Asia and the Middle East caused massive property destruction for those who resisted his invasion however, there are no exact factual numbers available at this time. For example, the cities of Ray and Tus, the two largest and most inhabited cities in Iran at the time, both centers of literature, culture, trade and commerce, were completely destroyed by order of Genghis Khan. Nishapur, Merv, Baghdad and Samarkand suffered similar destruction. There is a noticeable lack of Chinese literature that has survived from the Jin Dynasty, due to the Mongol conquests.In Mongolia the topic of Genghis Khan was taboo and was heavily suppressed by the Soviet-backed Mongolian communist government. He was largely described as a bad person and a tyrant. However, after the fall of the communist government and the onset of democracy in Mongolia, the memory of Genghis Khan has been catapulted to fabled status. Mongols today celebrate him as the founding father of Mongolia.Negative views of Genghis Khan are very persistent with histories written by many different people from various different geographical regions often citing the cruelties and destructions brought upon by Mongol armies, but some historians are looking into positive aspects of Genghis Khans conquests. Genghis Khan is sometimes credited with delivery the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment.Theoretically this allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East and Asia by expanding the horizon of all three areas. In more recent times some historians point out that Genghis Khan instituted certain levels of meritocracy in his rule and was quite tolerant of many religions. For instance in much of modern-day Turkey, Genghis Khan is looked on as a great military leader and even many male children are named a fter him with pride.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
If I were alone on a deserted island, the foremost thing I would wish I had brought with me would be my two boys because they would give me the strength to get through each day. Although, my children are not things without them I wouldnt want or need anything else nor would I have the strength to fight for excerption. Having my boys would prevent me from becoming lonely they would offer me a lifetime of entertainment (considering how humorous they both are), and also help prevent me from losing my sanity.My boys and I would not be able to maintain healthy diets if we ate only fish, therefore, the second thing I wish I would have brought are seeds. We would plant the seeds to grow our favorite fruits and vegetables. We would be able to enjoy eat healthy, as well as, heighten our survival rate. The third thing I wish I would have brought, if I am able to count it as one item, would be a in force(p) size, solar powered house boat. My house boat would be fully equipped with furnitur e, appliances, linens, and a water purification system.It would also be stocked with our unremarkable living essentials to maintain our hygiene and stay in good health we would have anti-bacterial soap, toothbrushes, toothpaste, and clothing to help us hunt, prepare, cook, and eat our food we would have pots and pans, eating and cooking utensils, plants and bowls, a set of sharp knifes, etc. to keep ourselves and each other entertained we would have our favorite board games, books to read, sketch paper, and pencils. If I had my boys, seeds to plant, and my marvelous over exaggerating houseboat I would live comfortably on a deserted island for a long time.
Friday, May 24, 2019
(1) In chapter 2, the textbook author uses various terms for autochthonic religions traditional, aboriginal, indigenous, tribal, nonliterate, primal, native, oral, and basic. distinguish four or five of these terms and discuss why you believe each of those terms is applicable to the religions covered in this chapter. (2) Why do so many indigenous religions have such a reverence for nature? Indigenous religions have such a reverence for nature because they have recently respect for Earth. It has strong spirit, and lots of item that could contain spirit.Mother Nature offered them so much landed estate to love and to do a favor prat in return and shews their love to her. Nature is a living energy to some people belief the same as people. The word indigenous refers to land and earth as well, which involved nature itself. (3) Discuss several of the sacred practices that atomic number 18 common in indigenous religions. Some several sacred practices that are common indigenous religio ns are that they do are having dances around the fire. They sometime huddle together and do some kind of sacrifices or ceremony to show their holy respect for their belief. (4) Discuss the state of indigenous religions today.Short Answer Questions (2 points each)(5) What is animism? (6) In general, what is the relationship between the human and animal worlds among indigenous religions? (7) How do indigenous religions, in general, select their sacred spaces? (8) How are ancestors viewed in most indigenous religions? (9) What big events in life are usually marked by ceremonies in indigenous religions? (10) What is a taboo? What are some examples of taboos in our modern culture, and are they religious or cultural in nature? (11) What is a shaman, and what piece does the shaman play in indigenous religions? Shaman is a scholar who help guide people on their spiritual journey.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Driving whitethorn be the most dangerous activity with which we atomic number 18 involved. Government estimated the marchesinal of 4,000 people and reproach of 5000 per annum but according to study of WHO in 2009 the yearly finish is more than 20,000. Worldwide, the build of people killed in track dealings casualty each year is estimated at almost 1. 2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million. Road work injuries constitute a major public health and development crisis, and argon predicted to increase manifold gradually.With the number of fomites rapidly rising in developing countries, lane accident is quickly worsening in low and middle-income countries and is on its charge to becoming the third take drift of terminal and disabilities as epidemic by the year 2020 (WHO 2000) after two deadly diseases Ischaemic heart disease and Unipolar major depression. The score number of high driveway heapiness deaths worldwide and injuries is expect to ri se by some 65% between 2000 and 2020, and in least developed and developing countries deaths are expected to increase by as more as 80%.An otherwise statistics revealed that Bangladesh has one of the highest fatality rates internationally in driveway accidents, over one hundred deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles. Some US government departments grounds in 1997, encouraging the removal of the word accident from the work management vocabulary and suggested replacing it with the word crash. Beca practice session push vehicle crashes and injuries are predictable, preventable events. go along mapping of the word accident promotes the concept that these events are outside of gracious influence or control. In fact, they are predictable results of specific actions.We can site their causes and take action to revoke them. These are not acts of God, but predictable results of the laws of physics. The profiles of fatal road accidents or crush are, fatal accidents mainly bump on natio nal highways predominantly involve vehicles hitting pedestrians. The highest number of fatal accidents by far involve menacing vehicles manage buses, minibuses and Trucks). The highest number of fatalities per accident occurs when vehicles clash head on and killed predominantly young persons.The causes of Road accident are identified from the studies are 1. foolhardy cause 2. over- advanceing 3. over- loading 4. vehicular defects 5. lose of knowledge and consciousness of the road users 6. hazardous roads & road environments 7. lack of training to the drivers 8. lack of training of criminal maintenance of vehicles 9. poor executing of Traffic rules & regulations 10. driveway chthonic influence of alcohol, drugs and so on 11. Non use of helmets, seat belts etc. 12. walk on the roads instead of victimization the pathway 13. elude the road without using the foot over bridge 14. drive the vehicles by helpers instead of Drivers 15.illegal competition to overtake the vehicle . Studies showed that human behavioral factors jointly represent the main cause of three out of five road traffic crashes, and contribute to the cause in most remaining cases.Here immenseness should be given on human behavior from both vehicle operators and users aspects. Interestingly, in all cases people use to blame whatsoeverone of participants in the incident. Drivers could be rated as all to blame, at least partly to blame, or not to blame in any given accident. But there were alike many other reasons of accident like-unforeseen mechanical failure etc. Bangladesh has lack of constitution formulation and lack legal vehicle monitoring authority and enforcement forces. delinquent to lack of vehicle monitoring and uninterrupted vehicle maintenance un upright vehicles run on the roads. Besides poor enforcements of traffic and highway regulations and lack of speciality of enforcement authorities are considerably promoting traffic accidents. Various research findings remov e presented strong evidence of an association between traffic conditions and crash probability. For example, vehicle speed has been associated with crashes in numerous studies.The variability in speed and car density increases the likelihood of a crash increases. A higher crash frequency was observed during the boot period and, counter intuitively, with general weather conditions. The best option to reduce crashes and their side effects has recently prompted research for proactive approaches in order to avoid crash occurrence in the first place. One of the most promising options gaining wide acceptance in recent years is the concept of detecting crash-prone traffic conditions and warning drivers when the likelihood of a crash is high in order to increase their compliments, thereby reducing the number of crashes.The study and evidence suggests that when driver attentiveness increases, crashes decline in appall of poor driving and environmental conditions. The measures recommended throughout the world are 1. avoid reckless driving, over speeding and over loading, 2. unfit vehicles can not be derived 2. provide adequate training to drivers and pedestrians 3. roads should be properly constructed & maintained 4. strong implementation of traffic rules & regulations 5. pedestrians have to use the footpath instead of walk on the road 6. safe driving without having alcohol, drugs etc. moldiness be ensured 7.Use foot over bridge or zebra crossing while passing the road. 8. Utilize helmets, seat belts, etc. 9. 100% concentration is required while driving the Vehicle etc and 10. Massive sensation campaigns for public cognisance of the road safety. The awareness and training of all participants can reduce road crush to a significant numbers. It is possible through precept of pedestrians, particularly children, women, aged on safe practices when near the road. The education of drivers, particularly heavy vehicle drivers, about road rules and safe driving practices is a must for a state like Bangladesh.The enforcement of laws is precise poor in our country. An increased enforcement of Regulations regarding unsafe vehicle condition and others are demand of the day. The increased enforcement of law and regulations regarding reckless or dangerous driving is a must for Bangladesh. One the other hand, rationalization of inappropriate activities on, adjacent to or near the road is crying need of the time. roadstead and highways are use for Bazar, parking, cross road passing and use of highways by slow moving vehicles creates assay of accidents. There must be provision of celerity where appropriate for conflicting road uses.Improvements of narrow and deteriorated bridges, culverts and lanes in the highways are a must. The appropriate provision of road signs and pavement markings throughout the network, and removal of any obstructor to the placement and effective vehicle regulation is very essential for all roads of the country. The road infrastr uctures need safety audit and safety conscious readying of new road may be taken immediately. A small changes or improvements in road layout and use of roundabouts and treatments of roadway shoulders can improve road efficiency. The Intersection designs of flaring, channelization, traffic islands etc.may be incorporated and provision for and augmentation of adequate pedestrian facilities.Treatments of roadside hazards lie trees, ditches, other fixed objects like electric car pools, Gas meter /station should be well planned to avoid obstruction on the road. There may be provision of special facilities for non-motorised vehicles and designated truck/bus lanes and installation of moving-picture show devices (lane markings, guide posts, chevrons) to facilitate and guide traffic movements. Control device for over speeding and dangerous undesirable overtaking including traffic tranquilize measures.Compulsory helmet use for motorcyclists and effective enforcement of laws and sanctions against alcohol impaired drivers and compulsory use of seatbelts by motor vehicle operators and car occupants including child should be effectively enforced. Bangladesh has a moderately written ram Vehicle Ordinance 1983 providing for non-bailable detention and capital punishment for reckless driving and silent killings on the roads. Such law is not only for punishment of wrongdoer drivers but it should be a regulatory law for providing safe road but unfortunately the law is perceived for punishment of drivers.Currently drivers are tried on a lower floor discussion sections 304 (A), 304 (B) and 279, all bailable. While one can be given five years under the first section, the offenders can be awarded the highest three years chuck out in the remaining two sections. The civil society and some organizations campaigning for safe road if fact also demanding amendment of the flagitious Procedure Code (CrPC) and the punishable Code as well as Motor vehicle Act to penalise the rash d rivers of motor vehicles to ensure road safety in the country and to enhance the road crush as offence for capital punishment without considering other major factors of road crush.The proposed amendment to the section 304 (A) says, Whoever causes the death of any person by doing any rash or negligent act not amounting to culpable homicide shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a termination which may extend to five years to 10 years with fine or both. Whoever causes the death of any person, by rash or negligent driving of any vehicle or riding on any public way, not amounting to culpable homicide shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years to seven years with fine or both, according to the proposed amended section of 304 (B) of the penal code.The proposed amendment to the section 338 (A) says, Whoever causes grievous injury to any person by driving any vehicle or riding on any public way so rashly or ne gligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one years to five years with fine or both. Some time police use to file case against drivers under penal code section 302,whichis non bailable and can fetch the death penalty.On the other hand, the Truck drivers association demanded that no case be filed against drivers under Section 302. Driver should not face charges of intentional killing for all the accidents those may be also accidental killing. Drivers have taken one of the riskiest professions to serve the society. The principal of professional immunity for unplanned killing is a major concern for drivers.They should be the right of defending themselves for unintentional killing or death for the splay of victim or defective road or transport etc. The director of Accident Research Institute (ARI) of Bangladesh University of engineer and Technology (BUET) has the obse rvation that passel we not term it an intentional offence when a driver hits the road with an unfit vehicle, violates traffic rules, like crossing speed limits, changing lanes abruptly, overtaking other vehicles frequently, resulting in deaths?A road traffic crash results from a combination of factors related to the components of the system comprising roads, the environment, vehicles and road users, and the way they interact. Identifying the risk factors that contribute to road traffic crashes is important in identifying interventions that can reduce the risk associated with those factors A mere increase of punishments of drivers for all kind of accident cannot serve the procedure of safe expedition in the road.The global policy is prevention of road crush not the punishment of drivers, one of the road users. Our problem is failure to implementation of the laws. This is an inefficiency of management. Rather, we should have policy of safer people, safer roads, safer vehicles throu gh improvement of safety measures and proper education to all road users including drivers and implementation of existing laws.Pragmatic Ways to Prevent Road CrashesDriving may be the most dangerous activity with which we are involved. Government estimated the death of 4,000 people and injury of 5000 per annum but according to study of WHO in 2009 the yearly death is more than 20,000. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic accident each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million.Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health and development crisis, and are predicted to increase manifold gradually. With the number of vehicles rapidly rising in developing countries, road accident is quickly worsening in low and middle-income countries and is on its way to becoming the third leading cause of death and disabilities as epidemic by the year 2020 (WHO 2000) after two deadly diseases Ischaemic heart disease and Un ipolar major depression. The total number of road traffic deaths worldwide and injuries is forecast to rise by some 65% between 2000 and 2020, and in least developed and developing countries deaths are expected to increase by as much as 80%.Another statistics revealed that Bangladesh has one of the highest fatality rates internationally in road accidents, over 100 deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles.Some US government departments campaign in 1997, encouraging the removal of the word accident from the traffic management vocabulary and suggested replacing it with the word crash. Because Motor vehicle crashes and injuries are predictable, preventable events. Continued use of the word accident promotes the concept that these events are outside of human influence or control. In fact, they are predictable results of specific actions. We can identify their causes and take action to avoid them. These are not acts of God, but predictable results of the laws of physics.The profiles of fatal road accidents or crush are, fatal accidents mainly occur on national highways predominantly involve vehicles hitting pedestrians. The highest number of fatal accidents by far involve heavy vehicles like buses, minibuses and Trucks). The highest number of fatalities per accident occurs when vehicles collide head on and killed predominantly young persons.The causes of Road accident are identified from the studies are 1. reckless driving 2. over- speeding 3. over- loading 4. vehicular defects 5. lack of knowledge and consciousness of the road users 6. hazardous roads & road environments 7. lack of training to the drivers 8. lack of training of maintenance of vehicles 9. poor implementation of Traffic rules & regulations 10.driving under influence of alcohol, drugs etc. 11. Non use of helmets, seat belts etc. 12. walk on the roads instead of using the footpath 13. cross the road without using the foot over bridge 14. drive the vehicles by helpers instead of Drivers 15. illegal competition to overtake the vehicle.Studies showed that human behavioral factors collectively represent the main cause of three out of five road traffic crashes, and contribute to the cause in most remaining cases. Here importance should be given on human behavior from both vehicle operators and users aspects. Interestingly, in all cases people use to blame anyone of participants in the incident. Drivers could be rated as either to blame, at least partly to blame, or not to blame in any given accident. But there were also many other reasons of accident like-unforeseen mechanical failure etc.Bangladesh has lack of policy formulation and lack effective vehicle monitoring authority and enforcement forces. Due to lack of vehicle monitoring and regular vehicle maintenance unsafe vehicles run on the roads. Besides poor enforcements of traffic and highway regulations and lack of strength of enforcement authorities are considerably promoting traffic accidents.Various research findings have presented s trong evidence of an association between traffic conditions and crash probability. For example, vehicle speed has been associated with crashes in numerous studies. The variability in speed and car density increases the likelihood of a crash increases. A higher crash frequency was observed during the peak period and, counter intuitively, with normal weather conditions.The best option to reduce crashes and their side effects has recently prompted research for proactive approaches in order to avoid crash occurrence in the first place. One of the most promising options gaining wide acceptance in recent years is the concept of detecting crash-prone traffic conditions and warning drivers when the likelihood of a crash is high in order to increase their attentiveness, thereby reducing the number of crashes. The study and evidence suggests that when driver attentiveness increases, crashes decline in spite of poor driving and environmental conditions.The measures recommended throughout the w orld are 1. avoid reckless driving, over speeding and over loading, 2. defective vehicles can not be derived 2. provide adequate training to drivers and pedestrians 3. roads should be properly constructed & maintained 4. strong implementation of traffic rules & regulations 5. pedestrians have to use the footpath instead of walking on the road 6. safe driving without having alcohol, drugs etc. must be ensured 7. Use foot over bridge or zebra crossing while passing the road.8. Utilize helmets, seat belts, etc. 9. 100% concentration is required while driving the Vehicle etc and 10. Massive awareness campaignsfor public awareness of the road safety.The awareness and training of all participants can reduce road crush to a significant numbers. It is possible through education of pedestrians, particularly children, women, aged on safe practices when near the road. The education of drivers, particularly heavy vehicle drivers, about road rules and safe driving practices is a must for a count ry like Bangladesh.The enforcement of laws is very poor in our country. An increased enforcement of Regulations regarding unsafe vehicle condition and others are demand of the day. The increased enforcement of law and regulations regarding reckless or dangerous driving is a must for Bangladesh.One the other hand, rationalization of inappropriate activities on, adjacent to or near the road is crying need of the time. Roads and highways are use for Bazar, parking, cross road passing and use of highways by slow moving vehicles creates risk of accidents. There must be provision of facility where appropriate for conflicting road uses. Improvements of narrow and deteriorated bridges, culverts and lanes in the highways are a must.The appropriate provision of road signs and pavement markings throughout the network, and removal of any obstruction to the placement and effective vehicle regulation is very essential for all roads of the country.The road infrastructures need safety audit and saf ety conscious planning of new road may be taken immediately. A small changes or improvements in road layout and use of roundabouts and treatments of roadway shoulders can improve road efficiency. The Intersection designs of flaring, channelization, traffic islands etc. may be incorporated and provision for and augmentation of adequate pedestrian facilities. Treatments of roadside hazards lie trees, ditches, other fixed objects like electric pools, Gas meter /stations should be well planned to avoid obstruction on the road.There may be provision of special facilities for non-motorised vehicles and designated truck/bus lanes and installation of delineation devices (lanemarkings, guide posts, chevrons) to facilitate and guide traffic movements. Control device for over speeding and dangerous undesirable overtaking including traffic calming measures. Compulsory helmet use for motorcyclists and effective enforcement of laws and sanctions against alcohol impaired drivers and compulsory use of seatbelts by motor vehicle operators and car occupants including child should be effectively enforced.Bangladesh has a moderately written Motor Vehicle Ordinance 1983 providing for non-bailable detention and capital punishment for reckless driving and silent killings on the roads. Such law is not only for punishment of offender drivers but it should be a regulatory law for providing safe road but unfortunately the law is perceived for punishment of drivers.Currently drivers are tried under Sections 304 (A), 304 (B) and 279, all bailable. While one can be given five years under the first section, the offenders can be awarded the highest three years jail in the remaining two sections.The civil society and some organizations campaigning for safe road if fact also demanding amendment of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) and the Penal Code as well as Motor vehicle Act to penalise the rash drivers of motor vehicles to ensure road safety in the country and to enhance the road crush as offence for capital punishment without considering other major factors of road crush.The proposed amendment to the section 304 (A) says, Whoever causes the death of any person by doing any rash or negligent act not amounting to culpable homicide shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years to 10 years with fine or both. Whoever causes the death of any person, by rash or negligent driving of any vehicle or riding on any public way, not amounting to culpable homicide shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years to seven years with fine or both, according to the proposed amended section of 304 (B) of the penal code.The proposed amendment to the section 338 (A) says, Whoever causes grievous injury to any person bydriving any vehicle or riding on any public way so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one years to five years with fine or both. Some time police use to file case against drivers under penal code section 302,whichis non bailable and can fetch the death penalty. On the other hand, the Truck drivers association demanded that no case be filed against drivers under Section 302. Driver should not face charges of intentional killing for all the accidents those may be also accidental killing.Drivers have taken one of the riskiest professions to serve the society. The question of professional immunity for unintentional killing is a major concern for drivers. They should be the right of defending themselves for unintentional killing or death for the mistake of victim or defective road or transport etc.The director of Accident Research Institute (ARI) of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) has the observation that Can we not term it an intentional offence when a driver hits the road with an unfit vehic le, violates traffic rules, like crossing speed limits, changing lanes abruptly, overtaking other vehicles frequently, resulting in deaths?A road traffic crash results from a combination of factors related to the components of the system comprising roads, the environment, vehicles and road users, and the way they interact. Identifying the risk factors that contribute to road traffic crashes is important in identifying interventions that can reduce the risk associated with those factorsA mere increase of punishments of drivers for all kind of accident cannot serve the purpose of safe journey in the road. The global policy is prevention of road crush not the punishment of drivers, one of the road users. Our problem is failure to implementation of the laws. This is an inefficiency of management. Rather, we should have policy of safer people, safer roads, safer vehicles through improvement of safety measures and proper education to all road users including drivers and implementation of existing laws.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
1. Statement of Problem What are the problems being faced and the most important 3-4 decisions the smart set inescapably to make regarding the situation of the comp any(prenominal) in China.The company transformation from private equity ownership with an immediate shift of CEO marked new challenges for the company. The company has been going through rigorous changes to keep up with the strong performance track record. However, the distinction of the profiles and management approach of the two CEOs was obviously noticed by the subordinates. The intelligent handling of management issues and concerns with subsequent impact on the employees and consumers mark the importance and sensitivity of the decisions of Mia Foster. The response and performance of China Market are the old problematic area of the company. The management is piled with issues and skepticism on the ground of the equation generated out of new CEO, new Market, new strategies and new reporting procedures. The dire paup erism of management is to visit location with ample supporting information and vigilant approach to take hold over the situation. The core areas to be addressed in this reference includes the dilemmas of swirled market reputation of the company, skepticism over the companys potential to grow as a multinational brand, competitors controversy and in house mismanagement issues. An immediate and focused response to the illustrated concerns is essential at this point of time to take hold of the situation before it gets any worst. The solutions devised in this reference are illustrated belowa.Product Image in Market.b. Communication plan (Internal / External)c. Documentation of Policies and proceduresd. Marketing strategy development2. Alternatives What are three unlike courses of natural process she can take to deal with Louis Chen and solve these various issues? Clearly explain. The importance of the concerns with the necessity to strategically move to address the issues is obvious. The different courses of action that can be adapted to respond the requisites are referred below a. Department Heads are to be aligned over a platform with storage allocation of KPI in their respective fields in the light of the strategic objectives. b. The board of directors is to be supported by an in house team to monitor and prepare the resolutions. c. A third person consultation service can be hired with an objective of desired goals.3. Decision Recommend one course of action. convince us why this one is best and will help fix the problems. Address any criticism that this decision is likely to faceAmongst the suggested creams the first option of allocation targeted objectives as KPIs of the department head is the most suitable, as it will utilize in house resources and direct monitoring of the in charge. At the kindred time, the possibility of information leakage or blame game is further at the diminished end if this option is opted.4. Action List and describe 4-5 action s teps to turn your plan into reality and implement the planA comprehensive and concise action plan to support the strategy is suggested below for your perusal.a. education and establishment of company processes and policies.b. The communication of policies amongst all branches.c. Development of communication model that is separate links for internal communication with a user friendly website for consumers.d. The hiring of a regional media manager and financial analyst to keep the track on the path.e. Regular observation of agendas over the Board meetings.f. Allocations of target oriented KPIs beneath the observation of the strategic goals.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
hear Guide Intro to Social Sciences Anthropology * How culture contributes to the make up of benignantity * Science of people (origin, classification, distribution, races, physical character, culture) * Emphasis on cultural relativity, in-depth examination of context and cross-cultural comparisons * Anthropologists Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead * Both quantitative and qualitative methods of interrogation * field Biological/physical anthropology, Sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, anthropological linguistics Sociology Studies the actions of members within a specific society * How people organize themselves in groups, institutions and associations * Fields Demography, criminology, sexual activity studies, social stratification * Sociologists Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, George H. Mead * Both quantitative and qualitative research methods Psychology * Science of mental processes of a group/individual * Used in talk over to business * Fields Developmental psycho logy, abnormal psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology, organization psychology, cognitive psychology, personality, neuroscience. Psychologists Sigmund Freud, Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, John B Watson Sociology * One area of society affects a nonher at one time or indirectly * Ideology of society influences marriage, economics, love, freedom, politics * Sociologists seek to make sense of the beliefs and determine of the personalities interacting within the complex society that is continu bothy being re piddled. KARL MARX (1818-1883) * Study society using a scientific method to try to predict social outcomes (Marxist theory) * Production is natural for the advancement of society A few individuals lead control the majority of the resources and production * Conflict in his theory division of social class one persons status is elevated sequence other workers are forced to make money. * Labour Theory of Value human productive power will be exploited in ar ticulate to maximize profits for the bourgeois. * Proletariat produces goods valued at more than they are being paid rich getting richer. * Money is the driving force in our society * Businesses are exploiters, cannot see positive nature of the bourgeois TALCOTT PARSONS (Structural Functionalism) * As much as things change they stay the same Believed society will create structures within itself that will help with its basic functioning requirements * Our society will work to achieve a homeostasis where equilibrium is achieved * Every aspect of society contributes to the successful function of another aspect. (Relies on separately other) * When a carcass breaks down, it is necessary for other components in society to take over or assist the malfunctioning social structure. * Ex Legal system * Structural functionalism Does NOT look at social change deals with the maintenance of a society (seeks normality, equilibrium).GEORGE H. MEAD (Symbolic Interactionism) * Symbolic interactioni sm Focuses on how humans interpret (define) each others actions. Their response is based on the meaning which they attach to such actions (not the actions directly). * Individuals learn and react from interactions within a society. * People influence their surroundings and shape the development of a society. * Society shapes the individual as he/she is shaping the society. * Analyses from the standpoint of communication as essential to the social order, not individual psychology. FEMINISM Liberal Feminists Examine social institutions, equal access to increase womens influence on society. * extreme Feminists Focus on the exploitation of women. Seek to change the patriarchal social structure through complete structural changes. * Marxist Feminists Focus on womens labour being underpaid. * Social Feminists Focus on the overthrow of the capitalism believe it is the root problem of inequality of sexes. Fields Demography * Demography is the scientific teach of human populations-their si ze, composition and distribution across an area. * Fertility, mortality, and migration.These three processes influence how people inhabit the earth, form nations and societies, and how they develop culture. Criminology * Criminology is the study of the criminal justice system and the law enforcement from a social and individual perspective. * Focuses on the behaviour which may have caused the criminal to violate a law, and seeks its influences, whether it is psychological, social or cultural. sexual urge Studies * Gender studies seeks to analyse gender identity and gendered representation in the fields of psychology, political science, sociology, media studies, human development etc. Gender studies investigates the physical and biological gender differences surrounded by sexes, nationality etc. Psychology * Study of human behaviour. * Examines actions, responses, how someone reacts under specific conditions, how this individual affects society. SIGMUND FREUD * Creator of psychoana lysis * Human behaviour is driven by desires and the suppression of these desires. * Mind has three areas Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious * Personality is motived by drives= Id (part of the unconscious mental capacity) * Superego= socially conscious of all decisions Ego= mediator between Id and Superego * Too much Id= not worry about social responsibilities engage in dangers, breaking social rules. * Too much Superego= too uptight, too worried about social expectations and rules * Freud mass human development as progressing through stages of development where the main conflict deals with an erogenous zone of the body. * Human development is understood in terms of changing focuses of sexual desire. B. F SKINNER (Operant Conditioning) * Interested in outward behaviour believed that our personality develops because of external events. He used a rat experiment to line of battle the idea of positive reinforcement praise for good behaviour has the highest chance for producing lo ng-term behaviour change. * Humans develop their behaviours due to a set of rewards that set up activities being repeated and reinforced. * Skinner believes that Operant Conditioning is good tool to promote an individual to make changes in their behaviour. IVAN PAVLOV (Classical Conditioning) * He wanted to see how the mind could be conditioned to make the body respond to the possibility of an event occurring. * Ex Salivation reaction of a dog to a meat powder ERIK ERIKSON (development stages table) Believed that at a certain stage of someones life there are tasks (milestones) to achieve in order to have a healthy development. * irrelevant Freud, he believed that a person can pass through a stage and not get stuck at a certain level of psychological development. Fields Developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the science of studying developmental growth in humans over the course of their life span-from conceit until death. Neuroscience Neuroscience psychology is an in terdisciplinary field which applies the knowledge and study of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and networks of sensory nerve cells.Abnormal psychology (deviance) Abnormal psychology is the part of psychology that studies deviant (unusual) behaviour, emotion and thought. Personality psychology Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that strives to determine how different personality traits and tendencies influence our thoughts, behaviour and actions and makes each human unique. Clinical psychology Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology which applies scientific, theoretic and clinical knowledge in order to assess, prevent, predict and to wield abnormal behaviour, ysfunction or mental disorders in order to improve the individuals well-being and personal growth. Social psychology Social psychology is the study of individuals thoughts, feelings and behaviour and how they perceive and influence others. Organizational psychology Organizational psycho logy is the scientific study of employees, workplaces and businesses. Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology which studies the mental processes including how people learn, remember, think, perceive and solve problems. Anthropology * Science of studying people and their culture. Anthropologists pose important questions concerning the continuation of poverty, racism, violence, and social inequality around the world. FUNCTIONALISM (Margaret Mead) * discretion how social institutions fill social needs. * Every custom or practice in society provides a form of stability for the entire system. * All aspects of a societyinstitutions, roles, norms, etc. serve a purpose and that all are indispensable for the long-term survival of the society. * Having established laws, customs, and agreed upon practices provides a sense of predictability and stability within a society. In order to understand a society, researchers must understand the function of social instituti ons and their respective contributions to the stability to their society. * A critique of functionalism is that all institutions are considered to provide stability, when this is not the case. * Ex The presence of family violence produces instability in the culture with a difference in power among the different sexes. structural anthropology * Reinforcement of a norm or a value increases the acceptance of the practice within a given society. * Cultures, viewed as systems, are analyzed in terms of the structural relations among their elements. Structuralists believe that meaning is produced and reproduced within a culture through activities and various practices that show their significance. * For example, North American society values the concept of romantic love and close friendship. This social idea is reinforced through media and national celebrations. Ex Valentines Day. * Different societies institutions reinforce different values. Fields Biological/physical anthropology Biolog ical anthropologists seek to understand how humans have evolved and what affect that has had on our behaviour.Sociocultural anthropology Sociocultural anthropology examines social patterns and practices by studying and comparing human societies across the world. Archaeology Archaeology is the study of past people, cultures, and civilizations through the analysis of material remain, ranging from artefacts and evidence of past environments to architecture. Linguistic Anthropology Linguistics is the study of languages how they are formed, evolved, and how it has interacted and contributed to a culture.
Monday, May 20, 2019
College students are young, lively and generally healthy individuals, but just like all population, they are prone tocertain health problems. Not only do college students curb some of the worst eating, employment and sleeping habits,they also have to deal with stress from school, relationships and job hunting that takes a major ships bell on their health.Here are the 8 most common college ailments1. Depression Depression is a growing pick out that even college campuses are dealing with more than and more. An alarming 44 percent of college students reported feeling symptoms of notion during college andmany do not seek treatment for their mental illness. Depression can be brought on by a number of factors,including anxiety from school or work, the loss of a loved one, a debauched relationship and early childhoodtrauma. College students have a high risk of being depressed because their hormones are frequentlytimes out of whack and imbalanced at this age, and they face a grea t deal of pressures and obstacles while in schooland away from their parents.2. Meningococcal Meningitis Meningococcal meningitis is a rare but often deadly bacterial infection that isspread through strain droplets and direct contact with infected persons. When the disease attacks, it will shutdown major organs and prevent source flow to the limbs, often causing tissue to die and extremities to beamputated. From a national perspective, meningococcal meningitis is a rare disease that strikes fewer than 3,000 people every year. However, it tends to thrive on college students living in the dorms becauseof the close-quartered arrangements and their often weak insubordinate systems.3. Alcohol and Drug Addiction Alcohol and drug abuse has, and continues to be, a health problem amongcollege students. College students have higher rates of alcoholic beverage and drug addiction than the rest of thepublic, with nearly 2.7 million full-time college students abusing drugs and alcohol at least once a month. As students relish in their newfound freedom, they are more likely to try drugs and alcohol with friends for the first time. Although alcohol is still the preferred drug of choice by most college students, in that respect has alsobeen an increase in marijuana and prescription drug abuse.4. sexually Transmitted Diseasesc With the increase amount of sexual activity and unprotected sexhappening in todays colleges, its no wonder why sexually patrimonial diseases are rampant amongcollege students. An estimated 20 to 25 percent of college students have been infected or are carriers of STDs. Sexually active young adults have high rates of STDs because they do not use adequate protectionand often do not seek medical attention. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes and HPV (Human Papillomavirus)are some of the most common STDs among college students.5. feeding Disorders Eating disorders continue to be a major concern among college students today. Inaddition to the classic eating dis orders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, there are a number of other eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) that have father more rampant in college, suchas caloric restriction, drastic weight loss, excessive exercise, binging and purging. Disordered eating iscommonplace in college, when students are eating on their own and trying to avoid gaining the freshman15.6. Obesity Eating disorders continue to collect attention in college, but many students are troubled by theother end of the spectrum obesity. Today, more than 30 percent of college students are consideredobese or overweight by the American College Health Associations standards. A combination of unhealthydiets, special physical activity and poor lifestyle choices has caused many college students to becomeobese or overweight.7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) We read a great deal about the amount of studentsabusing Adderall and other psychostimulant medications in non-medical ways, but t here is a growingnumber of college students being tested and diagnosed with ADHD, as well. The growing number of diagnoses can be attributed to several reasons, including the pressures of college studies, poor schoolman
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Kazakhstan University of Management, Economics, and Strategic Research squawk College of Business MBA program Term typography Financial summary of JSC Shubarkol komir and JSC sit down& go with Prep bed by 20101675 Kim Jonghon 20091481 Nurtas Kadyrbayev Instructor M Mujibul Haque, Ph. D. Executive thick This paper provides an abbreviation and evaluation of the ongoing and prospective cyberspace superpower, liquidity and m geniustary stability of JSC ShubarkolKomir and JSC sit& lodge. Methods of psychodepth psychology include trend and vertical analyses as sound as proportions such as Debt, menses and Quick balances. other calculations include rates of return on Shargonholders Equity and substance Assets and earnings per sh atomic number 18 to stimulate a few. All calculations stooge be found in the appendices. The report finds the prospects of the fellowship in its flow rate position be not positive. The major beas of weakness require further investigation and remedial execution by management. Recommendations discussed include improving the average out collection finish for accounts receivable improving/increasing archive turnover reducing pre earningss and perhaps increasing origin levelsThe report also investigates the fact that the analytic thinking conducted has limitations. some(a) of the limitations include forecasting figures are not provided nature and oddball of company is not cognise nor the afoot(predicate) economic conditions data limitations as not enough randomness is provided or enough detail. For example, monthly expand not known get outs are based on past performances not present. Acknowledgement We wish to announce our sincere gratitude to Dr. M. MujibulHaque, for providing us an opportunity to do our project, and for guidance and encouragement in carrying out this project work.We are heartily thankful that he support from the preliminary to the concluding level enabled us to develop and appreciation of the subject. Lastly, We offer our regards to all of those who supported us in any respect during the completion of the project. Dr. M. MujibulHaque Professor, Dean of Bang colledge of Business KIMEP, 4 Abay Ave. Dear Dr. Haque We are submitting herewith our depot paper entitled JSC ShubarkolKomir and JSC sit& gild. The main purpose of this paper is to master a set of concept to make effective fiscal analysis. The paper shows detail approaches and methodology which are was apply during our paper.We hope that this paper will merit your approval. Sincerely, Nurtas Kadyrbayev Kim Jonghon contents Title page . 1 Executive Summary 2 Acknowledgement 2 Letter of contagion remit of Contents . 4 parry of ikon/Tables .. 5 I. Introduction . 6 1. Objective 2. image .. 6 3. Methodology . 6 4. Limitation 6 II. Findings and Analysis .. 6 1. Shubarkolkomir and Sat&troupe companies overview .. 7 2. Du Pont analysis . 8 3. workings groovy constitution .. 9 4. big(p) Structure cons titution 17 5. Dividend constitution .. . 18 6. Break-even analysis .. 23 7. P/E symmetry analysis . 24 8. steep analyses . 25 9. Trend analysis .. 5 III. Summary and Recommendations 33 References .. 35 Appendices .. 36 List of Tables and symbols Table 1 Du Pont analysis .. 0 Table 2 Working majuscule .. 11 Table 3 Liquidity analysis .. 11 Table 4 Debt analysis .. 12 Table 5 lucrativeness analysis . 3 Table 6 dexterity analysis 15 Table 7 Capital structure 17 Table 8 capitalization rate 17 Table 9 Dividend form _or_ system of government ratio 2 Table 10 Break-even 23 Table 11 P/E ratio . 24 Table 12 Vertical analysis (Income Statement) .. 25 Table 13 Trend analysis (Income record) .. 25 Table 14 Vertical analysis ( equilibrize Sheet) . 6 Table 15 Trend analysis (Balance Sheet) . 29 Table 16 Summary 33 estimate 1 fade on rectitude .. 10 Figure 2 certain Assets/ impart Assets . 11 Figure 3 received ratio .. 2 Figure 4 Acid-test ratio 12 Figure 5 Debt analysi s 12 Figure 6 gross sales offshoot rate 14 Figure 7 Profitability analysis .. 4 Figure 8 Efficiency analysis .. 16 Figure 9 Dividend policy ratios 22 Figure 10 Leverage analysis 23 Figure 11 Price per persona/EPS .. 24 I. IntroductionA financial debate analysis is an measurable business activity that helps the legislate management assesses the stability and moolahability of the business. It is measurable to carry out a financial analysis, as it enables the management to decide upon the continuation or discontinuance of a particular project and to opt ends regarding the purchase of raw material and machinery, investitures, lending, and so on. Financial statement analysis involves the comparison of information of one entity over different checks of time or the comparison of information of different entities during the same period.The four main statements that are analyzed during the procedure include the balance sheet, income statement, statement of owners beauteousn ess, and statement of property in flows. Based on financial statements for past trinity years, they are 2010, 2009, 2008 which were available on Kazakhstan Stock Ex transplant (KASE) of each company, we make a financial analysis. We have applied 3 methods to evaluate the position of these companies through methods like ratio analysis, vertical analysis, trend analysis, and common- coat analysis.Limitations of this paper that in that respect is considerable subjectivity involved as there is no theory as to what should be the right hand number for the various ratios. Further, it is hard to reach a definite conclusion when some of the ratios are complaisant and some are unfavorable. Ratios are based on financial statements that reflect the past and not the future. Unless the ratios are stable, one ratnot make earthable projections almost the future trend. Financial statements provide an assessment of the personifys and not value. For example, the market value of items whiteth orn be very different from the cost figure given in the balance sheet.II. Findings and Analysis Joint Stock political party ShubarkolKomir is one of the producers of steam blacken largest in Kazakhstan. Shubarkol (from Kazakh shubar irritable, kol the lake) spotty lake. JCC ShubarkolKomir was created by mergering of absolved joint stock company Shubarkolskiirazrez and open joint stock company Shubarkolskoe transfer of training management. JSC ShubarkolKomir activity also covers pits on production of a construction stone, combust processing, operation of entre roads, rail transportation, shunting whole shebang, and also production and water deal. The company managed by Board of directors.Chief executive officer setted by board of directors. Form of ownership of JSC ShubarkolKomir is private. Joint Stock Company SAT Komir is formed in November, 2009. opening move primary activity is working out of coal deposits. Lines of activity Investigation and working out of coal d eposits. Extraction and realization coal for the industry and ho commithold consumption. The purposes To achieve good results in development of the coal industry. Successfully to solve problems on maintenance of internal requirements of the country in upstanding fuel and to an publication on the world market.The company develops the Kumyskuduksky site of the Verhnesokursky deposit of brown coal in the Karaganda in the land of ?azakhstan. Balance stocks of a site make more than 356 million tons of coal, from which 124,3 million tons are considered on categories, And, In and ?1. On a geological structure, broodency of capacity of layers and qualities of coal, the Kumyskuduksky site is carried to 1 group, tally to classification of stocks of deposits of square minerals. Coal mining is carried out by open way, horizontal ledges with transportation of gage weight by motor transport.The project on deposit working out is make Open Company Karaganda of Hypromines and To. Till th e end of 2010 it is planned to reach extraction volumes in 1,0 million tons of coal, 2011 to depart on designed capacity of 1,5 million tons of coal of year. To in parallel mountain works additional investigation of two reserve areas representing tall potential for ontogenesis of resource base is spent. instantly the company realizes high-quality coal of marks 2B, 2BC, 3B, 3BC. The tolls for production for today make 2600 tenge shipment at own expense, and 3600 tenge from the car.The fictile system of discounts, depending on volume is provided. Joint Stock Company SAT & Company luffs to join the top 30 largest metallurgical holdings of the CIS in terms of market capitalization. SAT & Company JSC solves the following tasks to achieve this aim Concentrating the Groups activities in the most promising sectors metallurgy and mining sector Launching new plants and ambit production capacity Supporting liquidity of The Groups additions and increasing capitalization by sexual c limax foreign capital markets and conducting minority share avocation.Main activity is wholesale of oil products, petrochemistry, metal processing, personal credit line transportation and investments in the fastest developing sectors construction, oil trading, oil and gas engineering, metallurgy, petrochemistry and transport. Du Pont analysis Table 1. Du Pont analysis JSC Shubarkol komir JSC Sat&Company Du pont 2010 2009 2008 total 2010 2009 2008 Average kale profitmargin 30% 25% 33. 9% 29. 6% 60% 0. 89% 43. 6% 34. 8% extreme Assetturnover 0. 67 0. 79 1. 38 0. 94 0. 033 0. 128 0. 39 0. 183667 EquityMultiplier 2. 47 2. 2 2. 5 2. 39 2. 11 1. 7 1. 48 1. 63333 ROE 49. 66% 43. 86% 117% 70. 17% 4. 17% 0. 195% 25. 23% 9. 86% Figure 1. Return on law Return on equity measures the rate of return on the ownership interest of the common stock owners. It measures a firms efficiency at generating profits from every unit of shareholders equity. ROE shows how well a company uses investmen t funds to leave earnings growth. On figure 1,is shown the rapid decline of return on equity from 2008 to 2009, and from 2009 to 2010 ROE was change magnitude solo for 5. 8% approximately. We kindle assume that world financial crises affected to Kazakhstan at the end of 2008.All manufacturing companies were suffered cod to financial crisis. If we compare Subarkol and Sat companies, Sat company is more capable for generating cash internally. One of the reason could be issue forth asset turnover. If we look to other factors, so we can see that total asset turnover of twain companies are declining each year. Table 2. Working Capital JSC Shubarkol komir JSC Sat&Company Working Capital 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Current Assets/ hail Assets 0. 14 0. 17 0. 16 0. 15 0. 11 0. 27 0. 28 0. 22 CurrentAssets/ gross sales 0. 21 0. 22 0. 12 0. 18 3. 22 2. 11 0. 73 2. 2 Figure 2. Current Asset/total asset Aggressive Investment indemnity results in minimal level of inves tment in latest assets versus fixed assets. In contrast, a materialistic investment policy places a greater proportion of capital in liquid assets with the opportunity cost of lesser profitability. In locate to measure the degree of aggressiveness, following ratio will be use AIP = Total Current Assets/ Total Assets. Where average ratio of Shubarkol is lower than Sat Company. Thus, Shubarkol Company has a comparatively aggressive policy, which leads to high risk and higher return in comparison with Sat Company. Table 3.Liquidity analysis JSC Shubarkol komir JSC Sat&Company Liquidity analysis 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Current Ratio 0. 73 0. 59 0. 40 0. 57 0. 59 2. 71 2. 74 2. 01 Acid-test Ratio 0. 48 0. 41 0. 28 0,39 0. 46 2. 46 2. 5 1,80 Figure 3. Current ratio Figure 4. Acid-test ratio Another strong brass of the companys operation is its liquidity. From average liquidity ratios of two companies, Sat show better result than Shubarkol, it can cover its deb t even if we exclude inventory. In order to cover its current liabilities Shubarkol Company should sell out its inventory.Table 4. Debt analysis JSC Shubarkol komir JSC Sat&Company Debt analysis 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Leverage ratio 2. 47 2. 21 2. 54 2. 40 2. 11 1. 7 1. 48 1. 76 Total Debt ratio 0. 59 0. 55 0. 61 0. 58 0. 52 1. 41 0. 33 0. 75 Debt-equity ratio 1. 47 1. 21 1. 54 1. 40 1. 11 0. 70 0. 48 0. 76 Interest coverage ratio 25. 46 13. 43 31,1 23. 33 2. 34 5. 83 2. 17 3. 45 Figure 5. Debt analysis Shubarkol komir has higher leverage ratio that Sat Company, which means it has possible difficulty in paying interest and principal maculation obtaining more funding. Leverage ratio=Total assets/Shareholders equity. The debt ratio gives an indication of companies total liabilities in relation to their total assets. The higher the ratio, the more leverage the company is using and the more risk it is assuming. Both total assets and liabilities can be found on t he balance sheet. The debt ratio of both companies show low level. Debt Ratio = Total debts/Total Assets The debt to equity ratio is the most popular leverage ratio and it provides detail around the touchstone of leverage (liabilities assumed) that a company has in relation to the monies provided by shareholders.As you can see through the grammatical construction below, the lower the number, the less leverage that a company is using. Again, like the debt ratio, we must understand the drawbacks of this formula. Totalliabilities include useable liabilities that are required to run the business. These are not pine term in nature and can distort the debt to equity ratio. Some will exclude accounts payable from the liabilities and/or intangible assets from the shareholder equity component. Debt to equity ratio = Total debts/total equity The interest coverage ratio tells us how easily a company is able to pay interest expenses associated to the debt they currently have. The ratio is d esigned to understand the amount of interest due as a function of companies earnings before interest and taxation enhancement enhancementes (EBIT). The interest coverage ratio is very closely monitored because it is viewed as the last line of defense in a sense. A company can get by even when it is in a serious financial bind if it can pay its interest obligations. Interest Coverage ratio = EBIT/Interest Expense Table 5.Profitability analysis JSC Shubarkol komir JSC Sat&Company Profitabilityanalysis 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average SalesGrowth rate 14. 7 -9. 79 66. 69 23,86 -44 -54 -24. 4 -40. 8 GrossMargin/Sales 0. 6 0. 65 0. 64 0,63 0. 04 0. 22 0. 41 0. 22 EBIT/Sales 0. 55 0. 48 0. 62 0,55 1. 29 0. 21 0. 33 0. 61 Return onInvestment 0. 30 0. 25 0. 34 0,29 0. 93 0. 009 0. 44 0. 46 Return onAssets 0. 2 0. 19 0. 47 0,28 0. 03 0. 001 0. 17 0. 067 Figure 6. Sales growth rate Sat Companys sales growth rate shows bad results, it has negative rates.Figure 7. Profitabilit y analysis The make profit margin looks at cost of goods sold as a percentage of sales. This ratio looks at how well a company controls the cost of its inventory and the manufacturing of its products and subsequently pass on the costs to its customers. The larger the gross profit margin, the better for the company. The calculation is Gross Profit/ straighten out Sales. Operating profit is also known as EBIT and is found on the companys income statement. EBIT is earnings before interest and taxes. The operate profit margin looks at EBIT as a percentage of sales.The operating profit margin ratio is a measure of overall operating efficiency, incorporating all of the expenses of ordinary, daily business activity. The calculation is EBIT/Net Sales. In average Return on investment has low ratio, even if Sat companies ratio is higher than Shubarkol company. The Return on Assets ratio is an important profitability ratio because it measures the efficiency with which the company is managin g its investment in assets and using them to generate profit. It measures the amount of profit earned relative to the firms level of investment in total assets.The return on assets ratio is cogitate to the asset management category of financial ratios. The calculation for the return on assets ratio is Net Income/Total Assets. Table 6. Efficiency analysis JSC Shubarkol komir JSC Sat&Company Efficiencyanalysis 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average InventoryTurnover 5. 57 6. 4 9. 56 7. 17 1. 6 4. 69 7. 78 4. 69 Total AssetsTurnover 0. 68 0. 79 2. 38 1. 28 0. 03 0. 13 0. 39 0. 18 AverageCollectionperiod 1. 68 7. 29 1. 2 3. 39 3. 26 2. 91 0. 65 2. 27 AccountsPayableturnover 9. 6 17. 48 2. 17 9. 75 0. 9 2. 85 3. 13 2. 22 Figure 8. Efficiency analysis Efficiency ratios are ratios that come off the the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement and thus incorporate one dynamic statement, the income statement and one static statement, the balance sheet. These ratios are important in m easuring the efficiency of a company in either turning their inventory, sales, assets, accounts receivables or payables. It also ties into the ability of a company to meet both its short term and long term obligations. This ratio is obtained by dividing the Total Sales of a company by its Total Inventory.The ratio is regarded as a test of Efficiency and indicates the rapidity with which the company is able to move its merchandise. Shubarkol Company is able to rotate its inventory in sales in average 7. 17 times in one fiscal year. When Sat company only 4. 69 times. The total asset turnover represents the amount of revenue generated by a company as a result of its assets on hand. Formula Total Asset Turnover = Sales/Total Assets. Total asset turnover of shubarkol company is higher, thus it has the lower the profit margins, since the company is able to sell more products at a cheaper rate.The Average collection period ratio shows both the average time it takes to turn the receivables into cash and the age, in terms of days, of a companys accounts receivable. The ratio is regarded as a test of Efficiency for a company. The potency with which it converts its receivables into cash. This ratio is of particular importance to credit and collection associates. To convert its accounts receivables into cash for Shubarkol Company takes in average 3. 39 days and for Sat company 2. 27 days. The Accounts Payable turnover shows investors how many times per period the company pays its average payable amount.Thus, Shubarkols accounts payable turned over 9. 75 times and Sats 2. 22 in average during the past year. Shubarkol Company is paying its suppliers very quickly, it may mean that the suppliers are demanding very fast pay terms. Sat Company is paying its suppliers more slowly, and may be an indicator of worsening financial condition. Capital Structure Policy Table 7. Capital Structure JSC Shubarkol komir shares B EBIT I EBT carry off Ki EPS P Ke=EPS/P S=shares x P V=S+B 4,500 200 11,236 24 11,212 10,098 10. 8 3. 6 1,250 0. 9 5,314,500 5,314,700 3,500 300 11,236 39 11,197 10,077 11. 7 4. 6 1,181 0. 39 4,375,000 4,375,300 2,500 400 11,236 56 11,180 10,062 12. 6 6. 5 1,140 0. 57 2,850,000 2,850,400 JSC Sat&Company shares B EBIT I EBT EAT Ki EPS P Ke=EPS/P S=shares x P V=S+B 3,000 1,000 3,678 cxxx 3,548 3,448 11. 7 0. 91 1, vitamin C 0,08 3,300,000 3,301,000 2,000 1,300 3,678 182 3,496 3,366 12. 6 1. 37 1,150 0. 12 2,300,000 2,301,300 1,000 1,600 3,678 240 3,438 3,278 13. 5 2. 73 1,200 0. 2 1,200,000 1,201,600 Table 8. Capitalization rate JSC Subarkol komir Ki(B/V ) + Ke(S/V) =Ko 0. 0004 0. 29 0. 29 0. 0008 0. 39 0. 39 0. 0018 0. 57 0. 57 JSC Sat&Company Ki(B/V ) + Ke(S/V) =Ko 0. 0035 0,08 0. 0835 0. 0071 0. 12 0. 1271 0. 0180 0. 22 0. 2380 For Shubarkol Company the optimal level of debt is 400 000 tenge, because the final Ko= 0. 29 and highest price is 1250 tg/share. For Sat&Company the optimal level is nose candy 000 tenge, where Ko=0. 0835. Divide nd Policy Provision on dividend policy of JSC Shubarkol Komir 1. widely distributed provisionsThe present Provision on dividend policy of JSC Shubarkol Komir is developed harmonize to the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the study, the Code of corporate governance of JSC Shubarkol komir and other internal documents. The purpose of the present feature is ensuring balance of interests of ball club and Shareholders and a transparent approach at determination of the amount of dividend payments of nine for shareholders. The policy of bon ton is based on respect and strict observance of the rights of the Shareholders provided by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Charter of Society and its internal documents.The dividend policy of Society is directed on increase of welfare of Shareholders, increase of investment appeal of Society and its capitalization. 2. Main conditions of payment of dividends to Shareholders 2. 1. Society, proceeding from the size of the received mesh profit (total profit) in a year and requirements of development of production and investment activity, aspires to increase the size of dividends nonrecreational to Shareholders along with growth of capitalization. 2. 2. Conditions of payment of dividends to Shareholders of Society are 1. xistence at Society of a net profit (total profit) in a year delimit according to focalize 3. 1. Provisions 2. absence of restrictions on payment of the dividends provided by point 5 of article 22 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan About joint-stock companies 3. decision of General meeting of shareholders of Society. 3. prepare of determination of the amount of charge of dividends 3. 1. The size of the dividends charged by Society, is defined with the standard. The net profit (total profit) Societies is defined on the basis of its consoli dated financial statements made according to IFRS. . 2. According to the current legislation and the Society Charter the Board of director s of Society prepares offers on an order of distribution of a net profit of Society for expired fiscal year and the size of the dividend in a year counting on one common share of Society 3. 3. The Society board of directors by preparation of the offer on an order of distribution of a net profit of Society for expired fiscal year and the size of dividends in a year, recognizes that the sum directed on payment of dividends, should make not less than 17,5 % of a net profit. 3. 4.The examination of possibility of payment by Society of dividends on common and preference shares quarterly, time in half a year, or following the results of a year is regulated according to the current legislation. The question is considered by Society Board, proceeding from the received financial results and look-ahead indicators of the size of dividends of Society actions. 3. 5. The Society board of directors, on the basis of offers of Board of Society, considers the main directions of distribution of a net profit (total profit), and also forms offers on a share of a net profit (total profit), directed on dividend payments. . 6. The Societies of the offer created by Board of directors about an order of distribution of a net profit of Society for expired fiscal year and the size of the dividend in a year counting on one common share of Society are submitted for consideration of General shareholder meeting. 3. 7. The final decision about the size of dividends is established by the decision of General meeting of shareholders of Society. 4. Order of payment of dividends 4. 1. Dividends are paid to Shareholders in the terms established by the Charter of Society and the relevant decision of General shareholder meeting. 4. 2.Society provides timely and complete payment of dividends to Shareholders. 4. 3. pay of dividends considered transfer of the corresponding sums of money from the Society account on bank accounts of Shareholders according to the decision original at General shareholder m eeting on terms and an order of payment of dividends. 4. 4. compensation of dividends is made by money or Society securities. Society has the right to make payment of dividends on stocks Society securities provided that such payment is carried out by the declared actions and the bonds issued by Society, in the presence of the written acquiesce of Shareholders.Payment of dividends by securities on preference shares of Society isnt allowed. 4. 5. The taxation of paid dividends is carried out in an order provided by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 5. Informing of Shareholders on dividend policy of Society 5. 1. Society places the present Situation, changes and/or additions to it on the corporate website of Society. 5. 2. Within 10 working days from the date of making decision of General shareholder meeting on payment of dividends on common shares of the Society Society publishes this decision in mint media. Thus Society also publishes this decision on the corporate we bsite. . 3. The decision on payment of dividends on common shares of Society should contain the following data 1. name, location, bank and other details of Society 2. the period for which dividends are paid 3. the size of the dividend counting on one common share 4. start date of payment of dividends 5. an order and a form of payment of dividends with the indication of the sizes, terms, ways and a form of payment of dividends. 5. 4. The materials provided to Shareholders for decision-making, should contain all necessary information on existence/lack of the conditions necessary for payment of dividends. . responsibleness for incomplete or untimely payment of dividends to Shareholders 6. 1. Responsibility for appropriate and timely execution of decisions of General shareholder meeting about payment of dividends, including complete payment of dividends, bears Society Board. sizes, terms, ways and form of payment of dividends. Dividend Policy Ratios Dividend policy ratios provide insig ht into the dividend policy of the firm and the prospects for future growth. Two commonly used ratios are the dividend yield and payout ratio. Table 9. Dividend policy ratios JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Dividend yield 10. 47 6. 5 8. 4 8. 45 11. 2 10. 11 9. 7 10. 33 Payout ratio 25. 4 19. 7 23. 25 22. 78 31. 56 30. 7 20. 9 27. 72 A high dividend yield does not unavoidably translate into a high future rate of return. It is important to consider the prospects for continuing and increasing the diviend in the future. The dividend payout ratio is helpful in this regard. Figure 9. Dividend policy ratios Break-even analysis We assume variable costs consist of 70 of total cost, and rest 30 is fixed costsTable 10. Break-even JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Break-even 14 15. 3 16. 7 15. 3 229 52 81 120. 7 DOL 1 1 1 1 -1. 69 1. 21 1. 12 0. 21 DFL 1 1 1 1 1. 99 1. 70 1. 24 1. 64 TL 1 1 1 1 - 3. 36 2. 05 1. 38 0. 07 Figure 10. Leverage analysis Operating leverage is a measure of how sensitive net operating income is to percentage changes in sales. Shubarkol net operating income grows 1 times as fast as its sales, whereas Sats net operating income declines for 1. 69 as its sales.Degree of Financial Leverage is very helpful in comparing various firms and the riskiness of their capital structures in a particular industry. The Sat company has high degree of financial leverage than Shubarkol, thus Sat company more riskier, consequently it has higher return. The Shubarkol company will meet break-even point at the level of 16,7 tons in average. The SatCompany at 229 tons. P/E ratio analysis Table 11. P/E ratio JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany P/E 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Price per share/EPS 1,377 1,936 840 1,384 512. 9 7,241 286. 2,680 Figure 11. Price per share/EPS PE ratio show the embedded value in stocks and are used by the investors as a screening device before making their investment. For example, a high P/E ratio may be regarded by some as being a sign of over pricing. When the markets are bullish or if the investor sentiment is optimistic about a particular stock, the P/E ratio will tend to be high indicating that investors are willing to pay a high price for companys earnings. Sat company has higher P/E ratio than Shubarkol company. It mean the more the market is willing to pay for this companys earnings.Vertical and Trend analysis Table 12. Vertical analysis (Income statement) JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average gross 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 speak to ofGoods Sold 39 35 36 36 95 77 58 76 Gross profit 61 65 64 63 5 23 42 23 Financingincome 0. 31 0. 21 0. 17 0. 23 0. 84 18 3. 2 7. 3 Otherincome 4. 5 1. 5 0. 7 2. 06 759 162 65 328 Sellingexpenses (0. 08) (0. 07) (0. 07) (0. 07) 11. 8 17 8. 2 12. 3 General andadministrative expenses (4. 5) (5) (3. 37) (4. 9) (446) (24) ( 200) 223 EarningsbeforeInterestand Taxes 61. 23 61 61. 4 61 330 160 81 190 Interestexpense (3. 22) (4. 8) (0. 7) 2. 9 (68) 22 13 34 Otherexpenses (1) (3. 5) (0. 2) 1. 56 237 150 67 151 Earningsbeforetaxes 57 52. 7 60. 5 56 0. 36 0. 15 2. 7 1. 07 Incometaxes (11) (11) (16) (12. 6) 12. 66 2. 88 0 5. 18 Tax onsuperprofit (12. 5) (17) (16) (15) 224. 5 150 65 146 Net Income 33. 51 24. 7 28. 5 20. 23 224. 5 150 65 146 Table 13. Trend analysis (Income statement) JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany 2010 2009 2008 Average 2010 2009 2008 Average Revenue 17. 2 -9. 3 200 69 -44 -60 -3 -36 Cost ofGoods Sold 30 -10 49 23 -33 -40 -22 -31 Gross profit 10 -9 507 169 -89 -75 53 -72 Financingincome 74 13 -16 23 -97 166 0 23 Other income 263 89 -15 112 165 16 50 77 Sellingexpenses 15 -8 33 13 -62 -2 -21 -28 General andadministrative expenses 4 -36 -12 14 923 -50 11 295 EarningsbeforeInterestand Taxes 10 -10 803 267 6. 3 -12 59 18 Interestexpense -22 -547 -35 201 69 -23 -13 11 Otherexpenses -66 -1868 21 -638 -4 -5. 46 12 Earningsbeforetaxes 19 -21 10000 3333 -56 -97 48. 4 -34 Incometaxes 17 -39 861 280 -145 0 0 -48 Tax onsuperprofit -16 53 12. 3 (15) -7. 26 - - - Net Income 45 -34 858 20. 23 289 -4 168 52 Table 14. Vertical analysis (Balance sheet) JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany ASSETS 2010 % 2009 % 2008 % Average % 2010 % 2009 % 2008 % Average % Current Assets interchange and Cash Equivalents 2. 4 1. 8 2. 5 2. 2 3. 47 3. 63 13. 81 6. 97 FinancialReceivables 0. 01 0 0 0. 003 2,94 11. 23 7. 03 7 Inventories 5 5 5. 8 5. 06 2. 41 2. 86 2. 47 2. 58 Current portionof big termassets held tosale 1,21 1. 82 0 1. 01 Advances paid and other receivables 0. 36 1. 6 0. 46 0. 80 - - - - Value added tax and other tax receivables 4 1 0. 63 1. 87 - - - - Other currentassets 6 7 8. 08 7. 03 0,61 0. 49 0. 99 0. 69 Total currentassets 14 17 16. 86 15. 95 10. 65 20. 05 28. 67 16. 79 Long-termassets Investmentsaccounted for using equity method 25. 9 0. 01 0. 0076 8. 34 1. 4 0 10. 74 0. 0008 4. 05 Property, plant and equipment 45. 47 61 56. 9 54. 49 56. 9 12. 11 14. 45 27. 82 Intangible assets 11. 5 18 22. 45 17. 32 5,38 0. 33 0. 05 1. 92 Investment inassociatedcompanies 4. 91 0. 99 0 1. 96 Deffered taxes 0. 58 0. 23 0. 34 0. 38 Other semipermanentassets 3. 14 2. 77 3. 67 3. 19 7. 79 14. 79 47. 85 23. 48 Total long-term assets 86 83 83. 14 84 89. 34 79. 94 71. 32 80. 2 coreASSETS 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 SHAREHOLDERS EQUITYANDLIABILITIES Currentliabilities FinancialPayables 5. 24 8. 9 24 12. 71 5. 3 12. 55 1. 14 6. 50 Taxes payable 9 14 9. 4 10. 8 0. 07 0. 04 0. 17 0. 09 Advancesreceived andother payables 0. 38 0. 56 0. 2 0. 38 - - - - Accountspayable 1. 46 1. 71 2. 6 1. 92 - - - - Evaluationliabilities 1. 53 1. 71 1. 9 1. 71 - - - - Short term loans - - - - 12,16 2,37 2,51 5. 68 Other currentliabilities 1. 43 1. 36 2. 73 1. 84 - - - - Total currentliabilities 19 28. 8 42 29. 93 18. 07 14. 96 10. 45 14. 49 Long-t ermliabilities Long-termfinancialpayables 25. 8 3 0. 4 9. 73 19. 689 26. 35 21. 0 22. 44 Reserves torestore locations - - - - 1. 61 0. 51 0 1. 04 Long-termevaluationliabilities 8. 71 16. 73 11 12. 15 1,61 - - - Deferred taxliabilities 6 6. 3 7. 5 6. 06 12. 86 7. 80 0. 85 7. 17 Other Long termliabilities 0. 25 0. 01 0 0. 08 Total long term liabilities 40. 5 26. 11 18. 7 28. 44 34. 42 34. 68 22. 15 30. 41 Shareholdersequity Issued capital 33. 4 46. 2 27 35. 53 22. 29 21. 48 7. 32 17. 03 Additional paidincapital 0. 9 0. 9 1. 4 1. 06 - - - - Treasury Stocks - - - - -0,03 ? ,01 0 -0. 013 Retainedearnings 6. 4 -2 11 5. 13 18,65 28,08 47,17 31. 3 Totalshareholders equity 40. 5 45 39. 3 41. 6 47,50 50,35 54,50 50. 78 TOTALSHAREHOLDERS EQUITY ANDLIABILITIES 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Table 15. Trend analysis (balance sheet) JSC Shubarkol komir JSC SatCompany ASSETS 2010 % 2009 % 2008 % Average % 2010 % 2009 % 2008 % Average % Current Assets Cash and Cash Equ ivalents 85 13. 11 -9. 14 29. 65 79,91 ? 57,43 1077,4 366. 49 FinancialReceivables 0 0 0 0 ? 50,60 158,61 ? 5,86 1072 Current portionof Long termassets held tosale - - - - 25,02 0 ? 100 -37. 4 Advances paid and other receivables -68 447 -71 102. 6 - - - - Inventories 21 64. 56 95 60. 19 58. 35 87. 52 ? 28. 45 39. 14 Value added tax and other tax receivables 46 159 62 89 - - - - Other currentassets 15 40. 72 53 36. 24 131. 77 ? 19. 71 ? 58. 61 17. 82 Total currentassets 13 59. 35 33 35 ? 0. 01 13. 20 ? 25. 61 -4. 47 Long-termassets Investmentsaccounted forusing equitymethod 3698 50 0 1249 ? 75. 42 1961 ? 7. 36 616 Property, plant and equipment 1. 56 70. 97 11. 13 27. 88 784. 05 35. 64 ? 19. 59 266. 68 Investment inassociatedcompanies - - - - 826. 77 1820. 8 ? 99. 93 848. 94 Intangible assets 12 27. 24 906 307. 08 2968 894,10 ? 18,76 1281 Other long-term assets 57 18. 67 43 39. 55 0,85602 49,9572 0 16. 93 Total long-term assets 44 56. 84 29. 2 43. 34 110. 3 4 81. 37 136. 27 4 42 TOTAL ASSETS 38 57 30 41. 66 88. 21 61. 82 45. 42 65. 15 SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Currentliabilities FinancialPayables -19 -40. 5 116 19 ? 12. 43 1683 ? 92. 22 526 Taxes payable -14 140 - 42 243,07 ? 61,85 9,48 63. 66 Short term loans - - - - 864. 69 52. 75 ? 69. 78 282. 55 Advancesreceived andother payables -6 350 - 114 - - - - Accountspayable 18 -33 45 10 - - - - Evaluationliabilities 23 43 313 126. 3 - - - - Other currentliabilities 45 -22 55 26. 33 - - - - Total currentliabilities -8 7. 8 164 54. 6 127 131 ? 59 66 Long-termliabilities Long-termfinancialpayables 1063 1096 8 722. 3 40. 59277 100. 2517 435. 4730 192. 106 Long-termevaluationliabilities -28 143 60 58. 33 - - - - Reserves torestore locations - - - - 488. 52 0 0 162. 84 Deferred taxliabilities 30 32 89 50. 33 210. 11 1369 800 793 Total long term liabilities 114 119 68 433. 66 86,78 153,28 444,02 227. 66 Shareholdersequity Issued capital 0. 1 170 1 57 94. 69 374. 61 0 156 Add itional paidin capital 0 0 84 28 - - - - Treasury stocks ? ? ? ? 6110 0 0 2036. 9 Retainedearnings 550 -128 -49 124 25 ? 57 26 Exchange ratedifference ? ? ? ? ? 245 0 0 -81. 7 Totalshareholders equity 24 80 -22 27 77. 570 49. 49 46 57. 68 TOTALSHAREHOLDERS EQUITYANDLIABILITIES 38 57 20 38 88. 21 85. 74 30,. 20 68. 05 The company generates its revenue from sale of coal. Revenue was increased from 2009 to 2010 for 17. As we told before the crisis affected to rapid decline in revenue from 2008 to 2009, due to cyclical type of industry. Cost of goods sold and net income show stable results during past three years. Level of cash is low in terms current liability. The company is less liquid.Property, plant and equipment take more than half of the total assets. We can assume it is because of type of the company, due to it is manufacturing company in necessarily more equipment. In comparison with 2008 past two years 2009 and 2010 the company financed with debt. Shareholders Equity section relatively good results it is increasing each year. Average of Cash and Cash equivalents in JSC Shubarkol komir is 2. 2 % and Sat Companys average cash is 6. 97%. Basically companys cash and cash equivalents should be at minimum instead of saving they should invest it to generate future cash flows.In our case cash both companies have minimum cash. Accounts Receivable in Company Shubarkol is 0. 003% and Sat Company is 7%. It says that both companies sells their product on cash, not on credit. But in order to sell more they should change their policy, selling not only on cash basis also on credit. Average inventory in Company Shubarkol is 5. 06% and in company Sat it is 2. 58%, it is a good sign both companies runs efficient business, inventory level at the minimum. In order not to have remaining inventories companies should use JIT.Property, plant and equipment take more than half of the total assets in both companies We can assume it is because of type of the company, due to it is manufacturing company in needs more equipment. Accounts Payable in Company Shubarkol decreased from 2. 6% to 1. 46 during 2008-2010. Company Sat doesnt have any accounts payables. Company Shubarkol and Sat generates its revenue from sale of coal. Cost of goods sold in Company Shubarkol is 36% of revenue and in company Sat is 76 % of revenue. Average EBIT in Company Shubarkol is 61%, in Sat Company it is 190%, it is much higher because of Other income, it is 19mln when revenue is 2mln.In Company Shubarkol net income show stable results during past three years. But In Sat Company it is increased from 65% to 224% , average is 146%. III. Summary and recommendations Table 16. Comparison table Shubarkol Komir SatCompany ROE senior high first gear CA/TA Low full(prenominal) CA/Sales Low High Current ratio Low High Acid test ratio Low High Total debt Low High Debt to equity High Low Gross mar/Sales High Low EBIT/Sales Low High ROI Low High Inventory turnover High Low Total Ass et Turnover High Low Average collection period High LowAccounts payable turnover High Low ROA High Low P/E ratio Low High Recommendations 1. Overhead tax overhead costs and if there are opportunities to decrease them. minacious overhead has a direct impact on profitability. Overhead expenses, including rent, advertising, indirect labor and professional fees, are indirect expenses that you incur to operate the business outside of direct material and direct labor. 2. Accounts receivable varan accounts receivables effectively to ensure that the company billing their clients properly and that youre receiving pro mpt payments. . Accounts payable Negotiate longer payment terms with vendors whenever possible to keep money longer. 4. Profitability Review the profitability on your various products and services. Assess where prices can be increased on a regular basis to maintain or increase profitability. As costs increase and markets change, prices may need to be adjusted as well. 5. Curr ent ratio Increase current assets by increasing profit, selling additional capital stock, borrowing additional long term debt, or disposing of unproductive fixed assets and retaining replication.Reduce current liabilities by retaining a greater portion of allocated savings. revoke financing non-current assets with current liabilities. References 1. James C. Van Horne Fundamentals of Financial Management 13th edition, 2008 2. http//www. sat. kz/ru/about/cel Retrieved from 20. 04. 12 3. http//www. kase. kz/ru/emitters/show/SHUK Retrieved from 15. 04. 12 4. Penman, Stephen H. Financial Statement Analysis and Securities Valuation, 4th ed. , McGraw Hill International Edition, 2010. Appendix A JSC ShubarkolKomir Balance Sheet As at declination 31, 2010ASSETS 2010 2009 Current Assets Cash and Cash Equivalents 685 621 371 204 Financial Receivables 4 115 0 Advances paid and other receivables 102 791 328 837 Inventories 1 356 411 1 119 355 Value added tax and other tax receivables 114 34 4 215 766 Other current assets 1 724 049 1 492 957 Total current assets 3 996 331 3 528 119 Long-term assets Investments accounted for using equity method 7 399 383 2 000 Property, plant and equipment 12 993 624 12 794 808 Intangible assets 3 285 530 3 751 702 Other long-term assets 897 362 572 860Total long-term assets 24 575 899 17 121 371 TOTAL ASSETS 28 572 230 20 649 490 SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Current liabilities Financial Payables 1 496 280 1 851 452 Taxes payable 2 571 754 2 983 414 Advances received and other payables 110 972 117 516 Accounts payable 418 977 354 986 Evaluation liabilities 438 035 355 173 Other current liabilities 408 340 281 281 Total current liabilities 5 444 358 5 943 822 Long-term liabilities Long-term financial payables 7 376 747 634 493 Long-term evaluation liabilities 2 488 523 3 456 287Deferred tax liabilities 1 698 759 1 302 972 Total long term liabilities 11 564 029 5 393 752 Shareholders equity Issued capital 9 540 291 9 531 291 Additional paid-in capital 188 566 188 566 Retained earnings 1 834 986 -407 941 Total shareholders equity 11 563 843 9 311 916 TOTAL SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 28 572 230 20 649 490 Balance value (common stock), tenge 2 316 1 543 Balance value (preferred stock), tenge 2 238 2 289 Appendix B Income Statement For the year ended December 31, 2010 ASSETS 2010 2009 Revenue 19 382 881 16 533 291Cost of Goods Sold (7 612 683) (5 834 093) Gross profit 11 770 198 10 699 198 Financing income 61 448 35 051 Other income 291 879 242 452 Selling expenses (15 556) (13 577) General and administrativeexpenses (871 190) (836 592) Earnings before Interest andTaxes 11 175 331 10 126 532 Interest expense (624 944) (797 304) Other expenses (193 703) (571 122) Earnings before taxes 10 418 133 8 758 106 Income taxes (2 160 673) (1 847 672) Tax on superprofit (2 420 352) (2 881 292) Net Income 5 837 109 4 029 142 Appendix C Statement of Cash FlowsFor the year ended December 31, 2010 Cash Flo w from OperatingActivities 2010 2009 Cash inflows 29 253 053 22 716 771 From sales of goods 28 535 245 21 495 162 From advance payments 408 340 1 121 843 Other proceeds 309 468 99 766 Cash Outflows 21 348 705 16 363 748 To pay suppliers for goods and services 7 857 546 6 846 546 To pay out advances 3 598 673 1 369 020 To pay employees salary 463 958 354 121 Interest paid 304 179 489 121 Income tax paid 1 772 233 1 853 11 To pay tax on superprofit 2 725 639 2 091 833 Other payments to cipher 1 904 193 1 257 436Other payments 2 722 284 2 102 419 Net cash provided by operating activities 7 904 349 6 353 023 Cash Flow from Investing Activities Cash inflows 431 000 1 643 From sale of fixed assets 1 643 Payment for long-term investments 431 000 Cash outflow 10 747 057 9 133 255 To acquire fixed assets 2 931 557 2 796 255 buy of other long-term assets 7 384 500 6 000 000 Purchase debt of other entities 431 000 337 000 Net cash provided by investing activities -10 316 057 -9 131 612 C ash Flow from Financing Activities Cash inflow 9 338 999 7 320 373From the sale of firms own equity securities 8 999 6 008 982 From borrowing 9 080 000 1 311 391 Other proceeds 250 000 0 Cash outflow 6 624 635 4 499 402 To repay amounts borrowed 3 042 253 1 449 556 To repurchase the firms own equity securities 0 9 000 To pay shareholders dividends 3 582 382 40 846 Others 3 000 000 Net cash provided by financing activities 2 714 364 2 820 971 Net increase/(decrease) in cash 302 656 42 382 Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of the year 382 965 328 822 Cash and cash equivalents, end of the year 685 621 371 204Appendix D JSC Sat & Company Balance Sheet As at December 31, 2010 ASSETS 2010 2009 Current Assets Cash and Cash Equivalents 2,720,160 1,511,944 Financial Receivables 2,310,048 4,676,501 Inventories 1,888,077 1,192,271 Current portion of Long term assets held to sale 949,524 759,512 Other current assets 477,206 205,892 Total current assets 8,345,022 8,346,120 Long-term asse ts Investments accounted for using equity method 1,098,757 4,471,632 Property, plant and equipment 44,567,701 5,041,284 Intangible assets 4,216,968 137,425Investment in associated companies 3,849,628 415,379 Deffered taxes 455,677 96,137 Other long-term assets 6,105,903 6,158,622 Total long-term assets 69,979,554 33,268,595 TOTAL ASSETS 78,324,576 41,614,715 SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Current liabilities Financial Payables 4,573,685 5,223,219 Taxes payable 56,727 16,535 Short term loans 9,526,727 987,540 Total current liabilities 14,157,139 6,227,294 Long-term liabilities Long term loans 15,421,083 10,968,617 Reserves to restore locations 1, 263,082 214,620