Monday, September 30, 2019
There are several things to check and several things that could be wrong. I would start by making sure that you have your ranges of IP addresses right and that you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mistype any numbers. Check your exclusions and be sure that your new ranges donÃ¢â¬â¢t fall in between the old ranges that were there before if you had any for the last set. You can also check the workstations that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take the changes individually. Be sure that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have static IP address set for those computers. If they do, then change them to dynamic and restart the computers. If they have the dynamic bullet check then open up a command prompt and ping the server. If you get no response use the ipconfig commands. Release the IP addresses with the IP release command and then use the ip renew command. If the workstations still do not work after trying the previous suggestions you can always assign your workstations using static IP addressing. It will be time consuming but with only twenty five workstations it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be too overwhelming. If the first suggestions do not work and you simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to do all the work of using static ip addresses then you can always start over and try putting in the new configurations again. The second time around be sure to restart your server and restart all of your workstations so the new changes will take effect. You may have to do it at a time when the company can afford the network to be all the way down for a few hours.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Apple Table of Contents: I. Introduction II. Opening Case III. Competitor Analysis IV. Sales Analysis V. Profitability Analysis VI. Cross Elasticity of Demand: Competitors v/s iPhone VII. Demand, Cost and Pricing VIII. Pure competition, Monopolistic Competition & Oligopoly IX. Conclusion X. References I. Introduction Apple Inc. (Apple) designs, manufactures and markets a range of personal computers, mobile communication and media devices, and portable digital music players, and sells a range of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications. It's products and services include Macintosh (Mac) computers, iPhone, iPad, iPod, Apple TV, Xserve, a portfolio of consumer and professional software applications, the Mac OS X and iOS operating systems, third-party digital content and applications through the iTunes Store, and a range of accessory, service and support offerings. The Company sells its products globally through its retail stores, online stores, and direct sales force and third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers. As of September 25, 2010, the Company had opened a total of 317 retail stores, including 233 stores in the United States and 84 stores internationally. II. Opening Case: Apple reveals the iPhone MACWORLD SAN FRANCISCOÃ¢â¬âJanuary 9, 2007Ã¢â¬âAppleÃ ® today introduced iPhone, combining three productsÃ¢â¬âa revolutionary mobile phone, a widescreen iPodÃ ® with touch controls, and a breakthrough Internet communications device with desktop-class email, web browsing, searching and mapsÃ¢â¬âinto one small and lightweight handheld device. Phone introduces an entirely new user interface based on a large multi-touch display and pioneering new software, letting users control iPhone with just their fingers. iPhone also ushers in an era of software power and sophistication never before seen in a mobile device, which completely redefines what users can do on their mobile phones. Ã¢â¬Å"iPhone is a revolutionary and magical product that is literally five years ahead of any other mobi le phone,Ã¢â¬ said Steve Jobs, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO. We are all born with the ultimate pointing deviceÃ¢â¬âour fingersÃ¢â¬âand iPhone uses them to create the most revolutionary user interface since the mouse. Ã¢â¬ iPhone is a Revolutionary Mobile Phone iPhone is a revolutionary new mobile phone that allows users to make calls by simply pointing at a name or number. iPhone syncs all of your contacts from your PC, MacÃ ® or Internet service such as Yahoo! , so that you always have your full list of up-to-date contacts with you. In addition, you can easily construct a favorites list for your most frequently made calls, and easily merge calls together to create conference calls. iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s pioneering Visual Voicemail, an industry first, lets users look at a listing of their voicemails, decide which messages to listen to, then go directly to those messages without listening to the prior messages. Just like email, iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Visual Voicemail enables users to immediately randomly access those messages that interest them most. Phone includes an SMS application with a full QWERTY soft keyboard to easily send and receive SMS messages in multiple sessions. When users need to type, iPhone presents them with an elegant touch keyboard which is predictive to prevent and correct mistakes, making it much easier and more efficient to use than the small plastic keyboards on many smartphones. iPhone also includes a calendar application that allows calendars to be automatically synced with your PC or Mac. iPhone fea tures a 2 megapixel camera and a photo management application that is far beyond anything on a phone today. Users can browse their photo library, which can be easily synced from their PC or Mac, with just a flick of a finger and easily choose a photo for their wallpaper or to include in an email. iPhone is a quad-band GSM phone which also features EDGE and Wi-Fi wireless technologies for data networking. Apple has chosen Cingular, the best and most popular carrier in the US with over 58 million subscribers, to be AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusive carrier partner for iPhone in the US. iPhone is a Widescreen iPod Phone is a widescreen iPod with touch controls that lets music lovers Ã¢â¬Å"touchÃ¢â¬ their music by easily scrolling through entire lists of songs, artists, albums and playlists with just a flick of a finger. Album artwork is stunningly presented on iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s large and vibrant display. iPhone also features Cover Flow, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing way to browse your music library by album cover artwork, for the first time on an iPod. When navigating your music library on iPhone, you are automatically switched into Cover Flow by simply rotating iPhone into its landscape position. PhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s stunning 3. 5-inch widescreen display offers the ultimate way to watch TV shows and movies on a pocketable device, with touch controls for play-pause, chapter forward-backward and volume. iPhone plays the same videos purchased from the online iTunesÃ ® Store that users enjoy watching on their computers and iPods, and will soon enjoy watching on their widescreen televisions using the new Apple TVÃ¢â ¢. The iTunes Store now offers over 350 television shows, over 250 feature films and over 5,000 music videos. Phone lets users enjoy all their iPod content, including music, audiobooks, audio podcasts, video podcasts, music videos, television shows and movies. iPhone syncs content from a userÃ¢â¬â¢s iTunes library on their PC or Mac, and can play any music or video content they have purchased from the online iTunes store. iPhone is a Breakthrough Internet Communications Device iPhone features a rich HTML email client which fetches your email in the background from most POP3 or IMAP mail services and displays photos and graphics right along with the text. Phone is fully multi-tasking, so you can be reading a web page while downloading your email in the background. Yahoo! Mail, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest email service with over 250 million users, is offering a new free Ã¢â¬Å"pushÃ¢â¬ IMAP email service to all iPhone users that automatically pushes new email to a userÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhone, and can be set up by simply entering your Yahoo! name and password. iPhone will also work with most industry standard IMAP and POP based email services, such as Microsoft Exchange, Apple . Mac Mail, AOL Mail, Google Gmail and most ISP mail services. iPhone also features the most advanced and fun-to-use web browser on a portable device with a version of its award-winning SafariÃ¢â ¢ web browser for iPhone. Users can see any web page the way it was designed to be seen, and then easily zoom in to expand any section by simply tapping on iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s multi-touch display with their finger. Users can surf the web from just about anywhere over Wi-Fi or EDGE, and can automatically sync their bookmarks from their PC or Mac. PhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Safari web browser also includes built-in Google Search and Yahoo! Search so users can instantly search for information on their iPhone just like they do on their computer. iPhone also includes Google Maps, featuring GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s groundbreaking maps service and iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing maps application, offering the best maps experience by far on any pocket device. Users can view maps, satellite images, traffic information and get direct ions, all from iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s remarkable and easy-to-use touch interface. iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Advanced Sensors Phone employs advanced built-in sensorsÃ¢â¬âan accelerometer, a proximity sensor and an ambient light sensorÃ¢â¬âthat automatically enhance the user experience and extend battery life. iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s built-in accelerometer detects when the user has rotated the device from portrait to landscape, then automatically changes the contents of the display accordingly, with users immediately seeing the entire width of a web page, or a photo in its proper landscape aspect ratio. iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s built-in proximity sensor detects when you lift iPhone to your ear and immediately turns off the display to save power and prevent inadvertent touches until iPhone is moved away. PhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s built-in ambient light sensor automatically adjusts the displayÃ¢â¬â¢s brightness to the appropriate level for the current ambient light, thereby enhancing the user experience and saving power at the same time. Pricing ; Availability iPhone will be available in the US in June 2007, Europe in late 2007, and Asia in 2008, in a 4GB model for $499 (US) and an 8GB model for $599 (US), and will work with either a PC or Mac. iPhone will be sold in the US through AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s retail and online stores, and through CingularÃ¢â¬â¢s retail and online stores. Several iPhone accessories will also be available in June, including AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s new remarkably compact Bluetooth headset. iPhone includes support for quad-band GSM, EDGE, 802. 11b/g Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 2. 0 EDR wireless technologies. iPhone requires a Mac with a USB 2. 0 port, Mac OSÃ ® X v10. 4. 8 or later and iTunes 7; or a Windows PC with a USB 2. 0 port and Windows 2000 (Service Pack 4), Windows XP Home or Professional (Service Pack 2). Internet access is required and a broadband connection is recommended. Apple and Cingular will announce service plans for iPhone before it begins shipping in June. III. Competitor Analysis Market Share by OS Nokia still has a third of the overall mobile phone market. The average selling price of a Nokia Smartphone fell by 21% from 2009. Nokia is selling plenty of devices, but they are at the cheap end of the market. They lost what some in the industry refer to as Ã¢â¬Å"mindshareÃ¢â¬ to Apple's iPhone and the Google Android mobile software platform. Nokia wants to sell services Ã¢â¬â music, maps, and applications Ã¢â¬â as well as hardware but high-end phone users are looking elsewhere. The company says a new family of SmartphoneÃ¢â¬â¢s, led by the N8 released in 2010, will revive its fortunes at the top end of the market. Nokia chief executive Stephen Elop was forced to abandon the mobile phone giant's in September 2010. The news that the Finnish firm might only break even in the second quarter of this year slashed 25 per cent off its value in 24 hours. Mobile phone manufacturer Nokia has announced it will shed 7,000 jobs from next year as part of a plan to refocus the company on Smartphone. The Finnish firm is moving from Symbian to Microsoft's Smartphone technology. The firm recently confirmed the deal with Microsoft last week to jointly develop Smartphone technology, which will cut costs by about 1bn Euros a year. Under the terms of that deal, Nokia agreed to start using the Microsoft's operating system on its Smartphone instead of its own Symbian platform. Nokia's response to the Smartphone threat from competitors such as Apple's iPhone and phones using Google's Android system has been long been a key investor concern. Prior to the iPhone, Nokia was the king of mobile handsets. Now its share of the Smartphone market has plunged from 47 per cent to 27 per cent. It has also lost its ranking as the largest handset maker in terms of revenue to Apple. Android When Google decided to get into the Smartphone business it decided that Android devices would be everything that the iPhone was not. Apple one or two handsets, Google on the other hand was laying out a great number of handsets. Manufacturers such as HTC, LG and Motorola could use the new operating system for free. It enabled Google to have phones for every section of the market Ã¢â¬â high powered and pricey, cheap and practical. Android's real selling point would be the apps. Here too, the policy was one of openness. Apple controlled its App store controlling every submission and rejecting those that contravened its rules. For Android anyone who had written an app could upload it. At first, users and app developers welcomed the free-and-easy approach. However, some have begun to question if Google's policy for the apps is the best way to manage the Market. Three years after its launch, hardware sales are booming. Yet sales of Android apps remain relatively poor. Estimates of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s App store in 2010 were ? 1. billion. Android Market managed just ? 62 million. The figure was lower than both Blackberry App World (? 100m) and Nokia's Ovi store (? 64m). Research predicts massive improvements for Android by this time 2012 but it is still expected to lag far behind iOS. Finally Android's market share grew to surpass the Symbian platform used by Nokia making it the most sold Smartphone Microsoft Microsoft market share is declining in the Smartphone platf orm market. Windows Phone 7 lacks a number of features despite the innovation of its user interface. Microsoft hopes to gain market share once Nokia Windows Phones and its wide-ranging Ã¢â¬Å"MangoÃ¢â¬ software update get released later in 2011. Microsoft has unveiled the first major update to its Windows Phone 7 operating system it launched in 2010. The update, codenamed Mango, intdoduces more than 500 changes. MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to break into the Smartphone race have been mediocre at best. Currently, the company controls less than 4% of the market. Despite this, MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Windows Phone 7 platform is forecasted to beat Android in 2013. Microsoft introduced Pocket PC in 2000, followed by Windows Mobile in 2003, prior to Apple and Android's release. However it still failed to compete in the market, or rival Symbian who controlled nearly 90% of the market share. Microsoft lacked the features and compatibility that Symbian was featuring at the time, and as a result, consumers refused to recognize its product or give Microsoft the opportunity to be a contender in the Smartphone industry. The platform was notoriously sluggish and the most difficult of any platform to use. Microsoft tried to solve some of these issues with minor tweaks and software updates over the years to little or no avail. As Windows Mobile market shares continued to decline, Microsoft had no other option than to overhaul the Microsoft platform and launch Windows Phone 7 in 2010. Windows Phone 7 was much improved. But Microsoft still failed to take control of the market, or garner any real significant attention from consumers. RIM Research In Motion has given up more ground to Apple and Google in the hypercompetitive Smartphone market, a report shows, while two brokerages cut their price targets for the BlackBerry maker on concerns it can no longer keep pace. The latest figures dropped RIM from second to third place. The Canadian company's struggle to compete is unlikely to get any easier, with Apple's upcoming iCloud service expected to hurt RIM. IV. Sales Analysis AppleÃ produced some stellar results: revenues up 48% year-on-year to $13. 5bn, and profits up. The process is confused becauseÃ Apple has begun restating its year-ago earnings, to take into account the fact that it now recognizes income and revenue from subscription-based products such as theÃ iPhone(which may be sold on an 18-month contract) as soon as it gets it, rather than deferring it over the life of the device/contract as it used to. It began doing that in the most recent quarter, covering Christmas, which Ã¢â¬â confusingly Ã¢â¬â is the first quarter of its financial year. So previously, the second-quarter revenues were $8. 16bn, not the newly-restated $9. 08bn; the profits were $1. 21bn, not the now-given figure of $1. 62bn. The numbers also don't include the iPad, because the quarter ended on March 31 Ã¢â¬â the iPad was launched three days later. According to MacJournals, which chewed over the numbers, Ã¢â¬Å"At $5. 445 billion, iPhone sales accounted for 40% of Apple's revenue. All Mac sales were 28%, allÃ iPod/Music sales were 24%. Mac sales are 2. 943m units, generating revenue of $3. 76bn Ã¢â¬â which Apple says was 33% year-on-year growth, compared to market growth of 24%. The company's market share of mobile subscribers has also taken a deep plunge. Market research firm comScore says that between October and January, Microsoft's share of the market fell from 19. 7% to 15. 7%. RIM, the maker o f the BlackBerry, remained the leader, growing from 41. 3% to 43%. Apple Ã¢â¬Ës iPhone increased slightly, from 24. 8% to 25. 1%, and Google's Android grew by more than 250%, going from 2. 8% to 7. An interesting analysis comes from Tomi Ahonen, a former Nokia executive. Ã¢â¬Å"I am writing the first history of the once-iconic iPhone, written now in early April 2010, before Apple has released its first quarter earnings for 2010. This is literally the peak of the short reign that Apple's iPhone had as the most emulated Smartphone. [Ã¢â¬ ¦] And mark my words, the numbers are now very clear, Apple's market share peak among smartphones, and among all handsets, on an annual basis, is being witnessed now. Ã¢â¬ V. Profitability Analysis Apple reported in the second quarter of 2011 that net income rose 95 percent, to $5. 9 billion, or $6. 40 a share, from $3. 07 billion, or $3. 33 a share, in 2010. Revenue climbed 83 percent, to $24. 67 billion, from $13. 5 billion. The profit margin in 2011 is 22. 36% of the sales which is an improvement over the level the company achieved in 2010. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s return of equity is 38. 78% while in 2010 it was 26. 2% which means that there is a 12. 58% increase on the return of equity. The gross margin is 39. 07% which is slightly better than the company achieved in 2010. VI. Cross Elasticity of Demand: Competitors V/s iPhone When the iphone 3GS was released on July 11, 2008 it cost $199 with the AT;T two year contract. In January 2011 Apple cut the iphone 3GS price to $50. cross-price elasticity of demand = % ? in demand for product A% ? in price for product B %? in price for iphone: Price of Iphone 3GS, 2010 + Price of Iphone 3GS, 2011? Price of Iphone = 199 + 5050-199 = -1. 671% With the Market share OS table above we can compute the % ? I demand for prodct competing with the iphone. %? in demand for Symbian = Symbian market share of Q1 2011 Ã¢â¬â Symbian market share of 2010 = 27. 4% Ã¢â¬â 37. 6% = -8. % Symbian-iphone cross-price elasticity of demand = % ? in demand for Symbian% ? in price for Iphone = -8. 6%-1. 671% = 5. 146 %? in demand for Android = Android market share of Q1 2011 Ã¢â¬â Android market share of 2010 = 36% Ã¢â¬â 22. 7% = 13. 3% Android -iphone cross-price elasticity of demand = % ? in demand for Android% ? in price for Iphone = 13. 3%-1. 671% = -7. 959 %? in demand for R IM = RIM market share of Q1 2011 Ã¢â¬â RIM market share of 2010 = 12. 9% Ã¢â¬â 16. 0% = -3. 1% RIM -iphone cross-price elasticity of demand = % ? in demand for RIM% ? in price for Iphone = -3. 1%-1. 671% = 1. 855 ? in demand for Microsoft = Microsoft market share of Q1 2011 Ã¢â¬â Microsoft market share of 2010 = 3. 6% Ã¢â¬â 4. 2% = -0. 6% Microsoft -iphone cross-price elasticity of demand = % ? in demand for Microsoft % ? in price for Iphone = -0. 6%-1. 671% = 0. 359 The price elasticity of demand is the responsiveness of quantity demanded by a change of 1 percent in price. It is calculated by dividing the percentage change in the demanded quantity by the corresponding percentage change in price. The iPhone was launched in the US roughly at the beginning of the second Quarter 2008, at a price of $599. In mid September Apple reduced the price for the iPhone by 33% from $599 to $434. According to the quarterly reports, Apple sold 270 000 iPhones in the second quarter and 1,119 000 iPhones in the third quarter. If calculated according to the equation for price elasticity of demand, the iPhone would have a price elasticity of 4. 7, which means that Apple would lose almost 4. 7 percent of iPhone sales for each corresponding 1 percent increase in price. Since elasticity is greater than 1 the price is inelastic so the iPhone is a luxury commodity. Many consumers wait until increased competition forces Apple to decrease prices. VII. Demand, Cost ; Pricing Demand AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhone Supply and Demand Concept of Supply and Demand There is a general rule in economics that if the price of a certain good or service rises, then the demand for such good or service declines. If the price decreases, then potential demand also increases (inverse relationship). On the supply side, if the price of a good or service increases, then firms will be willing to supply the market with higher volume of such good or service. If the price decreases, then firms will cut their supply of the good or service (positive relationship. The market then adjusts the price of the good or service in order to satisfy both the consumers and the suppliers. This is called market equilibrium. Apple iPhone Demand Last July, Apple iPhone was able to outsell all smart phones in the United States. It almost equaled the sales of the most popular feature phone (LG chocolate), giving it a relatively stable position in the market. New Apple handset models accounted for almost 1 . of all phone handset sales in the US for about a month. It was estimated that the demand for Apple iPhone was rising at7 . 2 a month, equivalent to about 5 million units of quantity demanded. The market research firm iSuppli noted Ã¢â¬Å"This is a remarkable accomplishment for Apple, considering that July marked the first full month of sales for the iPhone. While iSuppli has not collected historical information on this topic, itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely that the s peed of the iPhone Ã¢â¬Ës rise to competitive dominance in its segment is unprecedented in the history of the mobile-handset market (Marsal ,2007 . In short , almost unexpected rise in demand of Apple iPhone was unaccounted by many experts , including of which are some of its competitors . The same research firm also noted that survey revealed that almost 57 of iPhones (bought in July ) were purchased by US consumers . Most of the consumers are aged 17-35. Almost 52 of the consumers of this product are male, and about 48 are female, revealing an almost equal propensity to consume for the product among the sexes. Added to that, iSuppli noted that 62 of the consumers of the product are actually college graduates or those with graduate courses . Nonetheless , the same research firm noted that Ã¢â¬Å"some of the iPhone Ã¢â¬Ës success in July can be attributed to pent-up demand following months of hype (stagnant demand). Real proof of success will come in the coming months as demand patterns stabilize (Marsal, 2007). This prediction was almost accurate when the demand for iPhone was almost rising at 8 per month (month of June). Cost Apple's Iphone 4 smartphone, for which it's charging at least $500 at retail, is built of parts that cost $187. 51, according to market research firm Isuppli. According to the tear-down the most expensive part of the Iphone 4 is the 3. 5-inch LCD screen which costs $28. 50. Isuppli thinks that the Iphone 4 screen must be identical to one made by LG. It seems that Apple has managed to keep its parts cost at about $170 to $180 per unit. Isuppli's cost estimate doesn't include labour, shipping, advertising, software development or patent licensing. The cost is based on a 16GB version of the Iphone 4 but the low costs of each componant are fairly staggering. The Apple A4 processor reportedly is made by Samsung Electronics for $10. 75 per chip. Isuppli thinks that Geneva-based STMicroelectronics supplied the gyroscope chip at an estimated cost of $2. 60, as well as an accelerometer chip used in previous Iphone versions, which has an estimated cost of 65 cents. Other component suppliers named by Isuppli include Skyworks, a wireless chipmaker and TriQuint Semiconductor. In 2009, Isuppli estimated that the components and materials used in the iPhone 3GS cost about $179. Since then Isuppli thinks that the materials costs for that model have fallen to $134. Thus the Iphone 4 costs a bit more to make than the earlier model. Of course this means that Apple's gross margin on the hardware in Iphones is extremely high. The actual price margin gets obscured by the fact that AT&T heavily subsidises the phone in the US for about what it costs to manufacture. However the real winner is Apple, which does not have to pay for the cost of manufacture and still takes home about three times Iphone 4 production costs, on average. Pricing Because the iPhone price is entirely set by Apple, it makes an interesting case study on how much the price of technology drops over time. The official price of the iPhone periodically drops, as shown in the table below. But, there are no sales and a new iPhone is never sold for less than the official price. (There are occasionally sales on the refurbished iPhones for example on black Friday the refurbished 3GS was sold for $50. 00 instead of the usual $150. 00. )Ã Finding historical street price data is harder than historical MSRP data. For the iPhone both prices are the same. The table showing the historical price is included below. 1st Gen 4GB| 1st Gen 8GB| 3G| 3GS 16GB| 3GS 32GB| 29 June 2007| $499. 0*| $599*| N/A| N/A| N/A| 5 Sept 2007| Discontinued| $399| N/A| N/A| N/A| June 2008| N/A| N/A| $199| N/A| N/A| June 2009| N/A| N/A| $99| $199| $299| VIII. Pure competition, Monopolistic Competition & Oligopoly Apple Inc. planned to begin producing this year a new iPhone that could allow U. S. phone carriers other than AT&T Inc. to sell the iconic gadget, said people briefed by the company. The new iPhone would work on a type of wireless network called CDMA, these people said. CDMA is used by Verizon Wireless, AT&T's main competitor, as well as Sprint Nextel Corp. nd a handful of cellular operators in countries including South Korea and Japan. The vast majority of carriers world-wide, including AT;T, use another technology called GSM. With Apple developing a phone with CDMA capability, its exclusive U. S. arrangement with AT;T dating to 2007 appears set to end. Verizon Wireless, owned by Verizon Communications Inc. and Vodafone Group PLC, declined to comment. An AT;T spokesman said: Ã¢â¬Å"There has been lots of incorrect speculation on CDMA iPhones for a long time. We haven't seen one yet and only Apple knows when that might occur. Ã¢â¬ Apple declined to comment. For AT;T, the Apple relationship has been crucial, helping to make the carrier the U. S. leader in lucrative smart-phone market share. According to comScore Inc. , AT;T has over 43% of all U. S. smart-phone customers, compared with 23% for Verizon. These customers are especially attractive because they generally pay higher monthly rates for data plans. For several quarters, AT;T's growth has come almost single-handedly from the iPhone. In the fourth quarter of 2009, the carrier said it activated 3. 1 million new iPhones. In comparison, it counted only a net total of 2. million new subscribers as some customers moved from other phones to iPhones. Now that a new Verizon-compatible iPhone appears to be on the horizon, Digits looks at what Apple can do to win over mobile business users, particularly from RIMM's BlackBerry market. The people briefed on the matter said the upgraded GSM iPhone is being made by Taiwanese contract manufacturer Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. , which produced A pple's previous iPhones. The CDMA iPhone model is being made by Pegatron Technology Corp. , the contract manufacturing subsidiary of Taiwan's ASUSTeK Computer Inc. said these people. One person familiar with the situation said Pegatron is scheduled to start mass producing CDMA iPhones in September. Other people said, however, that the schedule could change and the phone may not be available to consumers immediately after production begins. Representatives of Pegatron and Hon Hai declined to comment. Verizon has publicly stated its interest in the iPhone, but people familiar with the situation said Apple originally decided against developing a phone for Verizon to keep its development process simple, since the technologies are incompatible. Verizon also is upgrading its network to a higher-speed technology, so Apple has said it believed CDMA was a short-term technology. Apple later changed its mind as it realized Verizon's upgrade would take longer than expected, said people familiar with the situation. Making the iPhone available through Verizon, which has over 91 million customers, as well as potentially other CDMA carriers could open up a significant new market. In 2009, iPhone sales globally rose 83% to 25. million, far outpacing the 20% to 25% growth in smart phones sales overall, according to Bernstein. But since Apple already dominates smart-phone sales through existing partners, Ã¢â¬Å"sooner rather than later, Apple is going to have to look to find incremental distribution,Ã¢â¬ which implies a monopolistic competition between all smart phone sellers, said Bernstein analyst Toni Sacconaghi. He estimates Verizon could help Apple nearly double the number of iPhone users in the U. S. Some advantages that iPhone has comparing to other smart phones are: 1. Pod: iPhone is a not just a phone it is widescreen iPod with touch controls that lets you enjoy all your content Ã¢â¬â including music, audiobooks, videos, TV shows, and movies Ã¢â¬â on a beautiful 3. 5-inch widescreen display (Nokia N95 only has a 2. 6 inch screen). The N95 does have a good media player, however with all the iPod features and 4 GB / 8 GB space, it makes the iPhone the best music phone. 2. Advanced Safari browser: iPhone lets you see any web page the way it was designed to be seen, then easily zoom in by simply tapping on the multi-touch display with your finger which will change mobile browsing for the good. . OS X: All the power and sophistication of an advanced operating system that gives you access to true desktop-class applications and software, including rich HTML email, applications such as widgets, Safari, calendar, text messaging, Notes, and Address Book etc. iPhone is fully multi-tasking, so you can read a web page while downloading your email in the background. This software completely redefines what you can do with a mobile phone. 4. User Interface: iPhone features the most revolutionary user interface since the mouse. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an entirely new interface based on a large multi-touch display and innovative new software that lets you control everything using only your fingers. 5. Visual Voicemail: The iPhone lets you select and listen to voicemail messages in whatever order you want Ã¢â¬â just like email using a revolutionary new feature called the visual voicemail. IX. Conclusion Analyzing as managerial economics students, we can conclude that although the current methods and techniques are serving us well in analyzing the current market situation, there will be new techniques emerging in the future with global changes occurring at leaping speeds. What is essential is for us to grasp is that the theory is flexible with these changes and that it can be shaped or rounded to be applied to any market situation analysis. The content and subjects we learned in this course are nothing but the bedrock tools that any manager needs to know and use in his daily life in order to forecast revenues and demand, analyze current markets and evaluate his companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stance regarding his competitors. X. References ttp://theblogpaper. co. uk/article/business/31may09/price-elasticity-demand-iphone http://news. cnet. com/8301-13506_3-20064223-17. html http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/business-10725887 http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/uk-13284156 http://m. ibtimes. com/microsoft-windows-phone7-google-android-apple-157595. html http://www. reuters. com/article/2011/06/03/us-rim-research-ubs-idUSTRE7523PP20110603 www. newyorktimes. com www. wallstreetjournal. com
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Automatic Flight Control Systems Engineering Essay We live in a world where technology is, if not being improved, developed by the second. Everyday new improvements, inventions and discoveries are made. One industry that is always on the lead when it comes to new inventions and innovations is the Aviation Industry. Over the years, aircrafts have been facing major improvements on the structure, fuel efficiency, life-span, range of flight. But one of the best improvements that have been done on every aircraft (commercial) that had the biggest impact in the Aviation Industry and most probably the main reason why the industry has been booming up is the improvements done in the Avionics section, specifically the Automatic Flight Controls. In the beginning, Pilots were trained to fly the aircrafts alone. But after several years, it is now the pilots programming the computer, telling it where to fly, at what altitude, etc. This computer is the AFCS (Automatic Flight Control System). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern world of flying, it is the AFCS who is technically flying the aircraft, from cruising to landing, and for some until parking. The AFCS has a lot of advantages when compared to human pilots when it comes to flying. Here are some of them: The AFCS has the ability to overcome deficiencies when it comes to stability and control. The AFCS improved the handling qualities. Such as, when the airspeed or the altitude of the aircraft needs to be constant. The AFCS is more accurate and hence is able to carry out several tasks that the pilot is not able to do. * Source: Emirates Aviation CollegeÃ¢â¬â¢s Automatic Flight Control Systems Book (Chapter 3.1.3) To get a better understanding of the AFCS, the different parts of it will be discussed, such as the Autopilot System, Flight Director System, Auto Throttle System and etc. The information about the AFCS will be based on one of BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s classic aircrafts, the 737-500. FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS) The Flight Management System is navigation, combined flight control, a Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) and a guidance system. The FMS provides control and operation of five independent subsystems to provide lateral navigation (LNAV) and vertical navigation (VNAV) for performance management and optimum flight profiles. The Flight Management System is not labeled to any control panel or any single component as it is an integration of five independent subsystems. These subsystems are: Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) Inertial Reference System (IRS) Autothrottle Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) Flight Management Computer System (FMCS) * Source: United AirlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ Boeing 737-322/522 (page 6, Chapter 22-2, Oct Ã¢â¬â¢99) from Emirates Aviation College Library This system was designed to increase fuel efficiency, safety and decrease workload. For both pilots, this means that they can select full FMS operation or Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS) for a complete automatic flight. They can even use the Control Display Units (CDU) to pr ovide, for manual flight, reference information. Management and operation is totally under the control of the flight crew. There are only certain operations that can only be implemented by the flight crew. They are: landing rollout steering, thrust reversal, speed brake operation, altitude selection, landing gear and flap operation, instrument landing system (ILS) tuning, thrust initiation, brake release, airplane rotation and steering during takeoff roll.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Spiritual Assessment Tools - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that spirituality is an aspect of life that is related to holistic nursing in terms of beliefs and behaviors. Dossey gave an understanding of spirituality as that broad concept which takes into account values, rationale and meaning; oneÃ¢â¬â¢s turns towards the human traits of personal sincerity, devotion, caring, understanding, empathy, and imagination; a graceful, dynamic poise allowing and creating body-mind-spirit restoration to health; and the existence of a quality of a higher authority, that guides mystical transcendence and personal spirit. On spirituality still, Pamela Reed adds to the definition that spirituality is entirely about expressions of developmental capacity for self-transcendence. Spirituality can be perceived as that very close affiliation that exists between an individual and a supreme being who is believed to be directing anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and practices during the life time. Spiritual Assessment carried out b y medical practitioners is the fundamental process of gathering, analyzing and synthesizing salient data to be used for appropriately planning nursing care into multidimensional formulations that are capable of providing the basis for action decisions on medical administration. From the perspective of a holistic approach, it is well established that spiritual assessment is an action taken with the assumption that spiritual wishes have dedicated influences on all other factors of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life.... Below are discussions of two of these Spiritual Assessments Tools, and their effectiveness in terms of timing and use effectiveness (LaRocca-Pitts M., 2008). a) FICA FICA is a spiritual historical tool that was created by Dr. Christine Puchalski together with Daniel Sulmasy, Joan Teno and Dale Mathews in 1996 with the view of providing means through which clinicians could efficiently integrate the open-ended investigative questions checking into a standardized medical history and that which could be applied by health care professionals. This technique identifies key elements that a physician or clinician may be in need of to determine any patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ spiritual belief in the medical settings. FICA, as a spiritual assessment tool, is based on four fundamental domains which are: the presence and recognitions of faith, belief, and their meaning to an individual; the importance of spirituality on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the immense influence that the belief system or values have on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual community; and the timeless interventions to address such spiritual needs. FICA is mostly used because of its effectiveness and comprehensiveness in assessing varied spiritual dimensions as may be based on existing correlations with spiritual indicators; especially in the view of spiritual activities, alterations in spirituality, positive life changes, purpose, and hopefulness. It is able to offer provisional frameworks for clinicians to initiate discussions about those aspects deemed meaningful to patients, i.e. families, work, and faith. FICA provides information things that are supportive to patients, i.e. spiritual communities; and also gives information concerning spiritual beliefs that most likely affects health care decision
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Financial crisis - Essay Example The global north was after this period walking on a financial tight rope. With the resource utilization reaching the maximum limits compounded further by a relatively high wage rate, most enterprises were feeling the pinch in the reduction of their rates of return. There are also indications that the credit crisis began in the developing nations that had began to experience financial turbulence in the early years before it eventually impacted the giant economies like the United States. With respect to these revelations and more, this paper therefore examines the causes of the credit crisis that affected the world and which its effects are yet to be fully mitigated. This essay will closely look at the major influencing factors in the global economy and that of the United States that led to the credit crisis that was experienced in the year 2004. As a precursor, the two major reasons for this crisis were internal policy framework and external influence as discussed below. Deregulation: Shadow Banking and Mortgage Securitization The main internal factor was that of the policy instruments by the government that led to further instability in the financial sector of the economy that was already unhealthy. The period before the crisis was characterized by a highly capitalist tendency that favored lack of regulation in the financial sector. Blundell-Wignall, Atkinson and Lee (3), state that by the year 2004 there were four key crisis-causing factors that came into perspective. First, the then presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of making mortgages cheaper to low-income household. Secondly, the increased restriction of the sole mortgaging authority that made banks venture more into the sector and thereby increasing low value lending. Third was the publication of the Basel II accord that encouraged banks to get involved in other non-trading activities. Finally, the investment banks were given more freedom through Ã¢â¬Ëconsolidated entities programÃ¢â¬â¢. In effect, this led to instability of economies mostly in the northern parts of the globe that depended highly on export surpluses. This created some sort of instability as Kapadia and Jayadev (35) indicate. They further state that the creation of a benchmark of currency and the isolation of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ consumption sector as the last in consideration when exporting resulted into instability in the world economy. The effects of deregulation were mostly felt in the banking sector. First, the impact of disallowing the regulations that stated that demand deposits accrued interests. Secondly, the mortgage interests with relation to residential properties were lowered creating a boom in the housing sector through increased mortgage lending. Lastly, the deposit taking institutions were allowed access to the Federal Reserve through a credit window that in turn allowed non-banking institutions into the financial market that was already unstable. It was therefore inevitable that deregulation was boun d to create Ã¢â¬ËindisciplineÃ¢â¬â¢ in the financial sector and that was the case. For instance, lack of proper monitoring of the banking institutions was creating an environment prone to unscrupulous deals that amounted to lose invested funds that created a recipe for future collapse of the whole lending system. Moreover, the mortgage sector was also affected
Organisation Change - Research Paper Example This paper identifies organizations that have implemented different organizational strategies, the one that is most successful, and the reason behind its success. Organizations That Have Adopted Different Change Strategies Tuning (Anticipatory and Incremental) Tuning is implemented when management anticipates a change and an incremental change is initiated. An example of this is the tuning of marketing activities by Du Pont. Du Pont adopted a marketing strategy called Adopt-a-Customer program, wherein a blue-collared worker would personally visit a customer to understand his needs and pass them on to the company (Kreitner, 2008). This innovative idea replaced the traditional way of waiting for the customer to report a problem and then fix it. This was an effective strategy that translated into organizational success. Adaptation (Reactive and Incremental) Adaptation is also an incremental change, but here the change is not proactive but reactive to external stimuli. Ford with its aero dynamic styling had made a successful change that positively affected the performance of the company. In order to compete with Ford, Chrysler and General Motors were forced to adopt a change in their design (Oden, 1999). Reorientation (Anticipatory and Discontinuous) Reorientation is an anticipatory change wherein significant redirection of the organization occurs. An example of this is the change made at At&T by CEO Bob Allen. The company went through many radical changes in the 1980s such as restructuring of the business units, new management teams, change in overall strategy, new acquisitions, etc (Palmer, Dunford & Akin, 2008). These changes were in response to anticipatory changes in the industry expected due to deregulation and pressure from international competition. Re-Creation (Reactive and Discontinuous) Re-creation also involves major modifications in the organization, it is similar to reorientation but the change here is reactive. An example of this is the complete restr ucturing of Apple Inc., in the mid 90s. Apple was under the threat of being shut down; it had not been able to adapt to the changing times and competition. It was then completely restructured which included a new product line and even new board members. Most Successful Changes and the Reasons behind Them The success of an organizational change is dependent on various factors and, hence, each change must be evaluated individually. In the above-identified changes, the most successful is the re-creation change in Apple. The simple reason for this is that the changes made in the company during the 90s have today resulted in Apple being one of the most valuable companies on the planet. There are numerous reasons behind this. The change brought focus to the product line. The number of products was reduced and more focus was given on developing a generation of the same product rather than a number of products. The restructuring of the board brought in new ideas and expertise to the company . In addition, the change in the leadership style (Steve JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ charismatic leadership) made a huge difference to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes. One Category More Successful Than Another Even though the recreation change is identified as the most successf
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Road to the Ocean - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re too young to drive,Ã¢â¬ her mom said. Ã¢â¬Å"The road is not for kids, I mean, teens,Ã¢â¬ her dad added. When LeahÃ¢â¬â¢s face fell and her eyes moistened, her mother came toward her, only to be met by the Ã¢â¬Å"hands offÃ¢â¬ hand gesture. In other words, the gesture said: Ã¢â¬Å"Talk to the hand that would never hold you again for a million years.Ã¢â¬ Leah felt betrayed. She expected her father to back her up, to say yes to her favorite and only daughter. She knew her mom would say no. Mothers created the word Ã¢â¬Å"paranoia.Ã¢â¬ But fathers, no, fathers were supposed to be a lot cooler, a lot more trusting. She knew that her father would knock on her door and explain himself. She wanted to turn him away. But she never could. Her father was a military official and when he was there, she knew how precious time was. When Lt. Col. James Madison knocked on his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s door, Leah said: Ã¢â¬Å"You know itÃ¢â¬â¢s open.Ã¢â¬ She could im agine him sighing. His bulky frame covered the whole door. He was massive and scary-looking. But for Leah, he was only her father. Her Daddy. He was the best father in the whole world, up until that moment when he betrayed her and did not let her drive. It was not even his car. And that thought made her angrier. She did not want to turn to him. She wanted him to see her straight and angry back, as she read her book, which she was not reading. But again, she failed. She glanced at him and there he was, 200 pounds of lean flesh, looking like a torn puppy. She imagined him whimper and she understood why her mother loved him so much. He was the biggest and most tender man ever. He loved them so fiercely. He would kill anyone who would deliberately hurt his wife and daughter. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry Leah. I mean. I am not sorry, because I know what the streets are nowadays. I am just sorry I hurt your feelings and trust in me. One dayÃ¢â¬ ¦Oh, you know what I mean.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t . IÃ¢â¬â¢m a year shy of sixteen. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with driving? I mean, learning to drive? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not like IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go off and have some random sex with any guy I meet at a club and get pregnant because of a stupid one-night stand.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You know I trust you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the world you donÃ¢â¬â¢t trust. I get it. But I donÃ¢â¬â¢t get it. Just please leave me alone. I want to go to another place, while staying here in my room.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Leah. Okay, good night sweetie.Ã¢â¬ He waited. Ã¢â¬Å"Good night. Good night Daddy.Ã¢â¬ And she stood up to kiss him at the cheek. She had to tip toe to do it. She embraced him quickly. So much for her rebellious daughter act. She just could not stand being angry with her dad. Sunday, the next morning, Dad and Mom left Leah to Aunt Millie. They had second thoughts, because Millie was not exactly a very responsible adult. At the age of 31, she was still single and a party bug. But no one else was ava ilable, and Dad wanted to bring Mom somewhere special, because he was leaving for an overseas mission in a few days. They wanted to celebrate their wedding anniversary in advance. They left with creases on their foreheads. Before their SUV drove away, they both made the sign of the cross, praying that Millie would miraculously be an adult for just twelve hours of her life. Leah did not feel excited. She used to enjoy MillieÃ¢â¬â¢s companionship. But she was now sore and bitter, or more like sore from being bitter. Millie asked her what she wanted to do, and she said nothing. Millie promised her that they could do anything she wanted. Leah said she wanted to learn to
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Hotel industry - Assignment Example In my case, I intend to add value to my hotel service industry by picking my raw foodstuffs from distributors who are recommended by the public health organization in the United States. My hotel service targets all customers, fixing desired prices on the foodstuffs while making quality and service to customers as the main aim as opposed to mincing money from the public. Moreover, the staff employed in my hotel should have adequate training in catering bearing in mind health and safety standards of the organization. However, I do not intend to run the hotel for my entire life. I intend to make it pick and gain popularity within its location then sell it to a new management at a higher price when business hits peak. This, I intend to implement through ample customer relations, providing safe products as well as placing customer preference and quality as my main aim. Service to humanity is service for money.The chart above shows the organization of my hotel service industry. Moreover au dit ought to be done every end of the financial year to assess the employees as well as the milestones achieved by the organization. Any product that aims to be brought to the hotel must be taken through health and quality checks to ensure that safety and health standards are adhered to.Reputable hotels are very successful in both their businesses and expansion. The most challenging task in the hotel industry is the handling of competition which comes about with providing quality services as well as fixing prices that are desirable to the target customers.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Progressive Education - Essay Example Life and Death of the U.S. School System by Diane Ravitch This book is an excellent introduction to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s education debates. The author sets forth a sound history of the American public school system, and after reading her book, the reader feels ready to consider opposing thoughts. Most importantly, they concur with her opinion that proper education is the foundation of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy. Readers are also likely to agree with DianeÃ¢â¬â¢s view that regardless of the measures which are adapted, education policy decisions should be well-informed and executed. Ravitch serves up an education reform like No Child Left Behind. She presents information showing that the policy was fruitless. For instance, she recounts Alan BersinÃ¢â¬â¢s era as the administrator of the San Diego school. She uses his effort of re-structuring San Diego schools as a case of what happens when harsh, corporate-style management blunders into the world of learning (Ravitch, 2010). Black Teacher s on Teaching Black Teachers on Teaching is a truthful and convincing account of the philosophies and politics involved in the schooling of black children during the past half century (Foster, 1977). Michele Foster talks to those who were the foremost to school in unified southern schools and to others who taught in high urban districts, such as Los Angeles, Boston, as well as Philadelphia. The book is a perfect record in relation to the gains and losses accompanying unification of schools, the rewards and inspirations of teaching, and the challenges and solutions they observe in the coming days. The book answers the question of what black teachers between the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s and the year 2000 experience in teaching. The book is an excellent source of the reactions to school integrations and its outcomes to students, teachers and parents dating back to the 19th century (Foster, 1977). School in American Culture This book deals with culture as it is in the flesh of lively habituated bodi es of humans who frame the society which shares of their traditions. This is in terms of their words, their gestures and expectations. The book was set around the 40Ã¢â¬â¢s and 50Ã¢â¬â¢s. It is a brilliant example of the classical and realistic definition of culture, containing both practice and constituted selves. However, the practical report is not a study of the people in an American school, but rather an overview of discriminated places and people and their relations in daily activities. The book summarizes the American thought of a teacher, based on the time it was written, derived from both experiences and stereotypes. The analysis of a school though is not particularly based on summarizing stereotype so much as in a logical arrangement of evident schools (Mead, 1964). Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools focus on the experiences past of Puerto Rican students in the United States. The book addresses issues of culture, identity, ethni city, language, social activism, gender, policy implications, and community involvement (Nieto, 2000). The book was set in the late 90Ã¢â¬â¢s, and was the earliest book to concentrate both on the education of Puerto Ricans in particular. It also focused on substantial and rising Puerto Rican scholars who are developing cutting-edge scholarship in the field of education. This volume is for anyone researching this vital
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Trauma and Grief in Australian Journalism Essay Since November 22, 1800, when George Howe arrived in Australia and started production on Australias first newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, much has changed in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s journalism industry (Morris, 2002). The rapid boost of information technology and advances in the AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system brought forth a radical and innovative breed of young journalists, all too eager to partake in serving the community by divulging the truth. In present-day Australia, journalism takes course in virtually all aspects of daily living. Ã It thrives on reporting breaking events such as asbestos poisoning and backyard abortions, to bush fires in South Australia (Morris, 2002). The death and injury toll for journalists sent out to cover armed conflicts has never been higher (Feinstein, 2003) yet many media practitioners flock to the Ã¢â¬Ëbiggest story goingÃ¢â¬â¢ without wavering. Whether from the front line, embedded with invading forces, or entrenched down in a nuclear fallout shelter, journalists all say they have a sense of duty to their public, to tell the Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ story, often without thinking about the toll getting that story can, does and will take on them personally (Feinstein, 2003). Reporters, especially those assigned in conflicts and disasters are as vulnerable to, and experience stress and trauma similar to that felt by traumatic event professionals, such as firefighters and combat soldiers (Hight, 1999). Foreign reporters often work alone in the field, with limited consular and often no physical support (Feinstein, 2003). The results can be tragic when stress rises to debilitating levels and goes untreated. Ã Journalists may abuse drugs or alcohol and struggle in their marriages and personal relationships. They may endure, often silently, such recurring problems as lack of sleep, hyper-arousal or emotional numbness (Place, 1992). Media men were always among the first to arrive in accidents and crime scenes, often ahead of the ambulance and lawmakers. They will be greeted with fresh casualties and survivors moaning in intolerable agony. Much more than this, they could witness those left behind, still shocked and stunned, whose agony seems insurmountable than those enduring physical pain. This causes the journalist, especially those who with more sensitive emotions, to feel the victims pain and loss as if it were their own (Hight, 1999). Journalists tend to conjure up isolation and guilt feelings and become anxious, thinking they too could experience such fate in the future. Ã From this stems loss of sleep and increased feelings of stress. Journalists usually encounter the wall of grief first at the beginning of their careers. With little or no training, they are assigned the police beat. They learn and gain experience by covering one tragedy. Victims coverage becomes a repetitive part of journalists careers that builds into more than just memories. (Hight, 1999). Distress from trauma builds up in a person after they experience an stressful event outside the range of normal every-day human experience, such as a serious threat to his/her life, physical integrity; or serious threat/harm to children, spouse, relatives or friends; more often for journalists, seeing another person seriously injured or killed in an accident or by physical violence (Feinstein, 2003).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The more traumatic experiences a person has the greater and longer lasting their feelings of stress, and anxiety and risk of stress educed mental health disorders (Hight, 1999). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder, or mental illness develops after exposure to a traumatic event or ordeal in which grave physical or mental harm occurred or was threatened (Creamer, Burgess, McFarlane, 2001). Ã Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include but are not limited to violent assaults, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, vehicle accidents, rape, physical abuse and military combat, all of which are witnessed and/or reported on by journalists regularly (Creamer, Burgess, McFarlane, 2001). Ã PTSD sufferers have trouble functioning in their jobs and personal relationships and suffererÃ¢â¬â¢s children can also be affected by their condition, reporting difficulty in school, becoming isolated and withdrawn from peers and developing phobias (Creamer, Burgess, McFarlane, 2001). PTSD affects people with varying degrees of severity, depending on the nature and number of traumatic experiences they have encountered and is diagnosed when symptoms last more than one month (Allen, 2003). Untreated, PTSD is unlikely to disappear (Allen, 2003). In Australia, university students taking up journalism courses are often told that PTSD exists and that they will have to cope up with grief/trauma but are seldom given practical coping skills as part of their degree/studies, with the exception of some top-ranking universities, such as the JSchool in Brisbane, Central Queensland University and University of the Sunshine Coast (Graduate Careers Australia, 2006). The present state of journalism education in Australia is disjointed. Institutions offering this discipline offer an impulsive mixture of practical training and professional concepts, from the realistic ones to the abstractions of mixed disciplines, such as art and theoretical sciences (Duckett, 2004). Large scale tertiary education began in the 1970s with the development of colleges of advanced education, such as the RMIT Advanced College, which sought to develop vocational streams of study. These colleges ultimately became universities, continuing their involvement in journalism education (Duckett, 2004). However, for a journalism student to be easily adaptable to the trauma he/she may experience in the field, university life should prepare him for the real challenge of the industry. Although many courses were established with industry approval and with some degree of industry control or input, the self-accrediting nature of Australian universities has seen a distancing of modern tertiary institutions from the news media industry (Henningham, 2003). This makes University journalism more of theoretical course, where students sit in a large lecture for two hours, and then afterwards, having a 30-minute tutorial where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re one of 50 students. Reporters often work alone in the field, witnessing death, violence and enduring psychological and physical stresses without the support and security of home.Ã Unfortunately most Australian university degrees do not provide student journalists with adequate preparation and training for this unavoidable aspect of their jobs (Henningham, 2003). What we see is that many journalism degrees are very theoretical; they do have much academic rigor and critical thought which probably belongs in a degree. But the mistake is to think that will produce a work-ready journalist, because the two things are completely different. One is work training, I suppose, and the other is academic study. Theyre two completely different things. And I think the universities may have lost their way a little in their direction. Are they trying to offer trade courses or degrees? The two things are very different (Duckett, 2004). There is no guarantee that Australian journalists are really prepared and trained to cope with their role as witnesses to trauma and disseminator of information, analysis and opinion about it Journalism is a challenging and interesting career offering variety and diversity in work tasks and roles. In addition to a broad general comprehension and a thorough knowledge of current affairs, successful journalists should also have personal qualities such as determination and emotional resilience, and the ability to cope up with trauma, while preserving the necessary emotions in his/her stories, for most these skills do not come naturally and must be taught and developed (Harrison, 1999). Many journalists work long and irregular hours, with evening and late night work common. An assignment cannot be dropped just because a shift has finished; a journalist must see it through to the end. Often they are called back to work to cover an unexpected development, and they are frequently required to work when other people are not-at night, on weekends, on public holidays etc. The unusual work hours can make social life difficult. Besides the open-ended work hours, there are also pressures to meet tight deadlines and to ensure the facts presented are accurate. Despite scientific knowledge of trauma and PTSD for over twenty years, only in the past several years have major news organizations begun to establish programs to address work related trauma, grief and stress (Creamer, Burgess, McFarlane, 2001). Ã Progress has been made in the face of skepticism and resistance among many journalists and editors. Still, there are too few scientific studies of trauma and journalists, too few trauma services for journalists, and reluctant and slowly growing recognition of the effects grief and trauma has on journalists by news outlets (Creamer, Burgess, McFarlane, 2001). In many instances, journalists are unprepared for its impact, and they have limited knowledge and skills to cope with work related trauma. Journalism is far behind other professions, such as educational counselling and fire and police departments, in recognizing trauma as a serious issue that must be addressed. The myth still exists that journalists shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t need trauma programs because journalists are supposed to be Ã¢â¬Å"tough as nailsÃ¢â¬ (Place, 1992). When it comes to trauma, journalism sometimes appears to be one of the last Ã¢â¬Å"machoÃ¢â¬ professions (Place, 1992). Media companies profit on the talents of their journalists, so they should invest on maintaining their proper mental health and well-being. News companies can quite inexpensively develop effective trauma awareness and preparation programs and should acknowledge trauma as reality and a concern; not as an affliction of the weak or a career Ã¢â¬Å"stopperÃ¢â¬ . Ã News conglomerates must also regard trauma services as an essential part of staff well-being, similar to other programs such as workplace health and safety. Information, practical training, confidential counselling and de-briefing services should be made available to journalists by employers free of charge whenever they feel the need to access them. Ã Developing a policy on reporting crises, such as rotating reporters and peer de-briefing, could also prove helpful and is another strategy media outlets could easily implement with little economic or resource strain (Castle, 1999). Ã Media outlets must make trauma training part of their ongoing training for all their journalists to ensure they stay in the profession and do not burn out or develop damaging conditions such as PTSD. Peer support programs are not new to people who work in the front line emergency services. Police, ambulance, and other similar professionals who are first to arrive at scenes have received education and training to developed techniques for dealing with trauma and grief they inevitably encounter during their work (Castle, 1999). In the past people were told to make debriefing appointments with psychological professionals, however recent research has shown that peer de-briefing is much more effective, because it takes place in a much less formal, sterile way and has less stigma attached to it (Castle, 1999). Newsrooms are renowned for bravado, with journalist often saying Ã¢â¬Å"Im okay, Im tough, Im not affectedÃ¢â¬ .Ã Those trained to recognize stress, and PTSD know one of the first signs of being affected is denial, and would see this as the first sign of a need for intervention. Peer support models from emergency services could be adapted and applied to Australian newsrooms to the benefit and success of Australian journalists as they have been to emergency workers (Place, 1992). This would see not only the journalists and camera people, trained to cope with grief and trauma but editors and telephone staff as well.Ã This way every member of the team can be of assistance in recognizing, and auctioning early interventions where necessary.Ã Training all members of the news room also means there will always be peer available to help and de-brief whenever the need arises. The first psychological study of war journalists, A Hazardous Profession: War, Journalists, and Psychopathology, was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, September 2002. The study used self-report questionnaires and interviews to gather data from two groups: 140 war journalists and 107 journalists who had never covered war. The study concluded that war journalists have significantly more psychiatric difficulties than journalists who do not report on war. The study also found: Higher rates of alcohol use (14 units of alcohol per week; 7.6 for non-war reporters) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intrusive thoughts, replay of memories and hyper-arousal were common Ã¢â¬ ¢ Low awareness of trauma Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social difficulties, such as re-adjusting to civil society, reluctance to mix with friends, troubled relationships, and embarrassing startled responses The researchers recommended that these results should alert news organizations that significant psychological distress does occur in many war journalists and has devastating and significant impacts if untreated, as is sadly, often the case. Despite the fact many journalists, particularly war journalists suffer PTSD with similar severity as war veterans, the Australian government does not provide them with treatment programs similar to those established by the Department of VeteransÃ¢â¬â¢ Affairs (DFA) for Ã War veterans (DVA, www.dva.gov.au). DFA entitlements such as private psychiatric and allied health services, intensive treatment programs for PTSD and a range of individual and group services should be extended to media practitioners directly involved in covering armed conflicts and other disasters (DVA, www.dva.gov.au). Further, all journalists should be provided with free access to professional psychological helping services as part of their employment packages. When examining grief and trauma in journalism, focus should not be confined to the newsrooms and behind cameras. Journalism isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always about the journalists, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also about stories they write, and the people behind these stories. Unconsciously, a reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s intrusion into an event may be untimely, and the respondent may offer several and unexpected reactions. There are ethical issues that a journalist may wish to consider when reporting on traumatic events.Ã Adhering to the MEAA code of ethics (MEAA, www.alliance.org.au) and maintaining professionalism under pressure will ensure journalists are comfortable with their own actions when reflected upon and will help them deal with personal feelings of guilt, responsibility and doubt. Before interviewing a person who has witnessed trauma, or a victim of violence, it is important to think about whether it is strictly necessary to interview the person immediately.Ã They may be in shock, disoriented, or frightened.Ã They may feel either guilty or elated that they have survived if others have not. This means that they may not be thinking clearly when they are asked for an interview, and that undergoing the process may bring up some unexpected feelings, emotions and behaviors offensive or threatening to the journalist, grief and trauma training would prepare journalists for these potential situations and impart practical skills for dealing with such (Place, 1992). As an ethical and professional journalist, check what interviewees would like to achieve by speaking publicly about traumatic experiences. Practicing and student journalists alike need to move away from traditional Ã¢â¬ËmachoÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking regarding trauma and grief, itÃ¢â¬â¢s place in their work and the potential affects it can have on their lives.Ã They need to understand that stress, anxiety and PTSD are real and that no matter how burning their desire to disseminate the truth or the story, they are not superhuman and that it is normal and ok to seek/receive help.Ã Journalists, as professionals need to be trained and alert to the symptoms and physical and psychological dangers grief and trauma of their work brings into their lives. Ten years ago a lot of veteran war correspondents and editors laughed at the idea that reporters should go for safety training; should go put on flak jackets and practice being shot at and stuff like that, however it has since been proven that such training is not only beneficial, it is lifesaving (Place, 1992). Psychiatry is a healing art, applied to individuals who suffer. There is no common path to healing after enduring human cruelty. But most individuals who do recover enough hope and worth to enjoy existence find meaning in their lives -and meaning in life itself. They escape that literal, factual and shattering treatment of personal reality. Most find the creation of life-enhancing myth a preferable alternative to existential despair. Many employ denial, delusion, and dissociation along the way. Therapists often help victims avoid intolerable memory (Ochberg, 1999). Journalism is not a healing art, but rather our best effort at undistorted perception of reality. It is neither psychiatry nor myth-making. It is the telling of those traumatic events, making a channel for the exit of those emotions, and arranging these stories into tangible aids for the future (Ochberg, 1999). Paradoxically, an energizing element of trauma,Ã is that can offer Ã transformative healing for individuals, such as the case with peer debriefing, as it can also offer for society at large (Place, 1992). As the medias role has expanded, its responsibility to media practitioners has expanded. Ã As academics and business leaders continue to understand and recognize the powerful influence of the mind, the medias responsibility to incorporate new knowledge regarding mental health and journalist wellbeing also expands. This is an invitation to put trauma, its impact, and the ability to be healed and transformed through it on the global agenda and to bring its awareness to the ones who are more frequently subjected to it, whether due to his/her course of living (such as the media men, etc.) or due to some unavoidable circumstances of nature. The media mirrors society and society mirrors the media. This interrelationship takes on a more pointed meaning when related to trauma. Media members, trauma researchers, and clinicians are invited to engage in dialogue on the expanding field of trauma knowledge. The media are the eyes, ears, and voice of our collective body. We must trust them; support them to cope so they can continue their roles as disseminators of truth, information, corporate/government watchdogs, and of course, the fourth estate. References Ã A Hazardous Profession: War, Journalists, and Psychopathology, American Journal of Psychiatry, September 2002 Anthony Feinstein 2003, Dangerous Lives: War and the Men and Women Who Report It, October 1, 2003 Australian Broadcasting Tribunal 1990, Violence on television, Sydney: ABT Creamer M, Burgess P, McFarlane AC 2001. Post-traumatic stress disorder: findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Psychol Med 2001; 31: 1237-1247. Di Powell 1990, Ã¢â¬Å"Media Intrusion into GriefÃ¢â¬ , Media Information Australia, No.57, August, pp.24Ã¢â¬â29 Frank Morris 2002, Ã¢â¬Å"The birth of the book in Terra AustralisÃ¢â¬ , April 26, 2002 Frank M. Ochberg, MD 1999, Ã¢â¬Å"Three Acts of Trauma News Ã¢â¬Å", Sacred Bearings Journal, April, 1999 Joe Hight 1999, Journalists who cover victims risk hitting The Wall , Daily Oklahoman , (Spring 1999) John Henningham 2003, Journalism sold short in media courses, The Australian (Media section), 23 October 2003 Lucinda Duckett 2004, Journalism Education: Cultures of Journalism/Lifelong Learning series, Radio National, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 26 June 2004 MEEA Code of Ethics, http://www.alliance.org.au/tech-support.html Nic Place 1992, Ã¢â¬Å"Journalists and trauma: The need for counsellingÃ¢â¬ , Australian Studies in Journalism, Vol.1, pp.113Ã¢â¬â158 Phillip Castle 1999, Ã¢â¬Å"Journalism and trauma: Proposals for changeÃ¢â¬ , AsiaPacific MediaEducator, Issue No. 7, July-December Shirley Harrison 1999, Disasters and the Media: Managing Crisis Communications, Macmillan, London .
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Jacobean and Victorian age of literature Chapter -1 INTRODUCTION The first thing we should know that why we study about literature and its history. We study literature because it has two features, one of simple pleasure and cherishing, the other of analysis and accurate explanation. In literature, for a short time, at least, we find a new world, a world that it seems a place of fantasy and magic. Literature is the utterance of life in words of sincerity and attractiveness. The first theme of this course is an introduction to the Jacobean Age and Victorian Age. Jacobean Age (1603-1625) After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, James 1 ascended the throne of England. The period of his reign is called the Jacobean Age. This age was also known as the Age of Transition. The Jacobean era succeeds theÃ Elizabethan eraÃ and precedes the Caroline era, and specifically denotes a style of architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature that is predominant of that period. During this period,Ã painting andÃ sculpture fall behind architecture in achievement because there was no fine expert of either. The chief of the early Jacobean painters was the marvelous miniaturist Isaac Oliver. Most of the Jacobean portraitists, like the sculptors, were foreign-born or foreign-influencedÃ¢â¬âfor example, Marcus Gheerhaerts the Younger, Paul van Somer, Cornelius Johnson, and Daniel Mytens. Their efforts were later excel by those of the Flemish painters Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony Van Dyck, who worked in England during the reign ofÃ Charles I. Elizabeth was famous and understanding, whereas, James was not at all famous. He was ignorant and could not communicate with the people. His court was wasteful and dishonorable. The critical nature can be seen in the literature of the age. Key Themes: Economy and Society: At the beginning of the 17th century, England and Wales had more than four million people. The population had doubled above the preceding century, and it proceeded to grow for next 50 years. Increase in population led to social and economic problems, like long term price inflation. Government and Society: Seventeenth century was completely bound together with the social hierarchy that controlled local communities. Rank, status, and reputation were the basis that allows members of the local elect to serve the crown either in the counties or at court. Political theory strained hierarchy, patriarchy, and deference in narrating the natural order of English society. The most common illustration of this political community was the metaphor of the body politics. Religious Policy: The Millenary Petition (1603) began a debate on the religious formation that James intended to defend. The king called many major bishops to hold the formal discussion with the reformers. The Hampton Court Conference (1604) saw the king waking personal role in the discussion. Finance and Politics: The annual budget in Scotland was hardly 50,000. James I inherited serious financial problems. Queen Elizabeth had left a debt of more than 400,000. JamesÃ¢â¬â¢s good chance that the latter grew after the judges ruled in BateÃ¢â¬â¢s case (1606). Jacobean Drama Jacobean literature begins with the drama, including some of Shakespeares famous and tragic plays. The dominant literary figure of Jamess reign was BenÃ Jonson, whose varied and dramatic works followed classical models and were enriched by his worldly, peculiarly English wit. His satiric dramas, notably the great Volpone (1606), all take a cynical view of human nature. One of the reasons for the immorality in Jacobean drama was it that it lost all the communication with the common people. In the age of Elizabeth, the dramatists and the audiences had been satisfied whereas, in the age of James, dramatists borrowed the themes and overstated the attitude of Spanish drama, and came across of interest and crime in Italy and Italian subjects. They refreshed the drama of tragedy into the drama of horror. Jacobean dramatist, however, showed a special skill in development of their themes and plots. Jacobean drama was patronized mostly by the classes which were known as Morality without character. Themes of death, time and instability committed the focus of most writers. Shakespearean tragedy does give rise to the sentiments of sorrow and worry, but it does not form depression. There are death and destruction. The cheer feeling is absent from Jacobean tragedy. The doubt, obscurity and despair of this age are reflected by its tragedy also. The Jacobean Age also brought a new kind of fashion, realistic and satire comedy. Victorian Age (1830-1901) The Victorian Period revolves about the political career of Queen Victoria. She was crowned in 1837 and died in 1901. A great deal of change took place during this periodbrought about because of the Industrial Revolution; so its not surprising that the literatureof the period is often concerned with social reform. The 19th century was one of fast development and restyle, far rapidly than in previous centuries. In this period England changed from a rural, agricultural country to an urban, industrialised one. This involved huge disruption and thoroughly adjusted the attributes of society. It took many years for both government and people to accommodate to the new conditions. Key Themes: Population growth and migration: Between 1801 and 1871 alone the population of the UK increased. Migration started in both directions. Many people left their home town in search of a better life. Most people who were poor migrated in large numbers, especially, Irish poor to England, Scotland, as well as abroad. Therefore, population of UK rises, where people came to find work. Migrants from across the world also settled in Britain, notably Jews from Europe and Russia. The Industrial Revolution: New inventions started taking place that force to a large development of production, through the factory system. There were vast social costs: the mechanized of work, child labour, pollution, and the growth of cities where poverty, pollution and illness bloomed. Also farm work affects long hours, very little salary and exposure to all weathers. The rise of the middle classes: Society was hierarchical, but there was much social and geographical flexibility. Self-made entrepreneurs used their new wealth to grow in society, building huge houses, educating their children and employing domestic servants. It was noted later that by the 1880s 1.25 million people were employed in domestic service. The growth of democracy: The franchise was gently stretched out to the working classes, till by the end of the period there were legal rights for men. The fight for votes for women was in full swing, but it was not until 1930 that women achieved the same voting rights as men. Expansion of Empire: Britain lost her American Empire, before the starting of 19th century. They were acquiring another in India. BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s accession of additional territory over the world continued strongly. By the end of Victorias reign imperialists could boast that the sun never set upon the British Empire. Victorian Drama In Victorian drama, farces, musical burlesques, extravaganzas and comic operas competed with Shakespeare productions and serious drama by the likes of James PlanchÃ © and Thomas William Robertson. Victorian drama sees changes with excess on the London stage ofÃ farces,Ã comic operas, and many more that competed withÃ ShakespeareÃ productions and serious drama by the likes ofÃ James PlancheÃ andÃ Thomas William Robertson. The 19th century saw the drama become the greatest form of literature in English. The works by pre-Victorian writers such asÃ Jane Austen and Walter ScottÃ had elaborate two things-social satire and adventure stories. Victorian novels aim to be glorifying images of difficult lives in which hard work, diligence, love and luck. They leaned to be of a developing nature with a moral lesson and mixed with a heavy dose of sentiment. While this formula was the basis for much of earlier Victorian fiction, the situation became more complex as the century pr ogressed. The Victorians dramatists also started writing novels on children, putting a purpose to stop child labour and the introduction of necessary education. Children began to read and so, literature for young people became a growth industry. Therefore, writers started producing works for children. Writers likeÃ Lewis Carroll,R. M. BallantyneÃ and Anna Sewell wrote mainly for children, even though they had an adult following.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
How is Seamus Heaney's Irish Rural Heritage Reflected In his Poetry. Seamus Heaney was born and grew up in the Irish countryside on his fathers' farm. His father was still using the traditional farming methods, which had been handed down for generations, even though technology had developed greatly in the early twentieth century. Heaney learns a lot from his father about farming and how generations of his family have done it. Heaney takes a great interest in it and he admires his father's skill in working the horses. These memories give Heaney a great deal to write about. The poems that I am going to study are 'Digging', 'Follower', 'At a Potato Digging' and 'Death of a Naturalist'. Heaney's memories and thoughts from childhood are conveyed in these poems. Heaney uses his childhood memories to form the basis of the poems that I am studying. He also refers to the men before him and how they have all dug. In 'Digging' we see how Heaney is using poetic digging to dig through the past, and his memories of seeing his father out of the window, digging. "My father, digging. I look down." Here we see how as Heaney is sitting down to write by his window he is reminded of how he would look out the window and see his father digging the potatoes which had to be collected by the children. He describes the children collecting the potatoes. "Loving their cool hardness in our hands." Heaney is remembering the feeling of the potatoes from when he picked them up for his father. By using the image of digging he can explain how, by looking through his past, he is able to unearth his roots and to discover who he really is. Heaney uses words which reproduce the sounds. This is because he is reliving memories. "... ...ng on his rural background and how he was brought up in the Irish countryside and on a farm. 'Digging' and 'Follower' do show how his background was rural but they are not using that as there main focus point. 'Death of a Naturalist' is about the end of his love for nature and the end of him being a naturalist. Heaney uses lots of nature-related words such as: "Flax-dam." "Sods." The use of these words show how he was brought up in a rural background. This poem is written in quiet a childish way. We can tell this from the language he uses, as the words are descriptive but childish. "Bubbles gargled delicately." The word gargled is a childish word but it is very effective in this poem and really makes the reader hear the sound and see the bubbles 'gargling'. The language in lines 16-19 represent the childish way the teacher spoke to the class.
Sexism in the Workplace Gender Roles Children learn from their parents and society the conception of "feminine" and "masculine." Much about these conceptions is not biological at all but cultural. The way we tend to think about men and women and their gender roles in society constitute the prevailing paradigm that influences out thinking. Riane Eisler points out that the prevailing paradigm makes it difficult for us to analyze properly the roles of men and women in prehistory "we have a cultural bias that we bring to the effort and that colors our decision-making processes." Sexism is the result of that bias imposed by our process of acculturation. Gender roles in Western societies have been changing rapidly in recent years, with the changes created both by evolutionary changes in society, including economic shifts which have altered the way people work and indeed which people work as more and more women enter the workforce, and by perhaps pressure brought to make changes because of the perception that the traditional social structure was inequitable. Gender relations are a part of the socialization process, the initiation given the young by society, teaching them certain values and creating in them certain behavior patterns acceptable to their social roles. These roles have been in a state of flux in American society in recent years, and men and women today can be seen as having expanded their roles in society, with women entering formerly male dominions and men finding new ways to relate to and function in the family unit. When I was growing up a woman was never heard of having a job other than a school teacher or seamstress. Our(women's)job was to take care of the house. We had a big garden out back from which we got most of our vegetables?A garden is a lot of work you know?We also had to make clothes when there were none to be had(hand-me- downs) Gender can be defined as a social identity consisting of the role a person is to play because of his or her sex. There is a diversity in male and female roles, making it impossible to define gender in terms of narrow male and female roles. Gender is culturally defined, with significant differences from culture to culture. These differences are studied by anthropologists to ascertain the range of behaviors that have developed to define gender and on the forces at work in the creation of these roles.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Japanese Identity Throughout its history, Japan has striven to define its national identity not by its own means, but by those predefined by foreign, and most recently, Western powers. Despite legends of the island archipelago being created by the sun goddess Amaterasu, Japan seems to have consistently maintained a indecisive self-image with respect to its neighbors. In the past, China had represented the pinnacle of culture and technology and had tremendously influenced other surrounding countries in Asia and in the world. Indeed, Japan owes its written language to imported and adapted Chinese characters. Without question, China remained for a long time the most influential force upon Japan. However, island nation maintained a rather precarious self-identity: How could a country like Japan, which was supposedly created by the gods and therefore a divine nation, consider itself the apex of the world, given ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s tremendous influence and power? Could Japan truly consider itself the greatest l and in the world if China, or Chugoku in Japanese, literally meant Ã¢â¬Å"the central country?Ã¢â¬ For this reason, Japan never truly accepted a position of Ã¢â¬Å"belongingÃ¢â¬ to Asia. That is, despite a considerable amount of imported culture, Japan was still somehow inherently different from other Asian countries. So, if Japan does not Ã¢â¬Å"belongÃ¢â¬ to Asia, does it belong to some other amorphous collection of nations, namely Europe or the West? Certainly in the modern post-WWII era Japan has seen phenomenal economic growth, even to the point of threatening the US as the primary global economic power during the height of the Ã¢â¬Å"bubble economy.Ã¢â¬ Some credit this success to the changes implemented during the US occupation. Undoubtedly without US assistan... ...th can be seen walking around in some of the most bizarre looking clothing. I once saw a young girl wearing a swan dress not unlike the one worn by Bjork. I have seen some of the worst Ã¢â¬Å"fashion faux-pas,Ã¢â¬ with severely conflicting colors, completely mismatching styles of the top, bottom, and shoes, makeup seemingly done by a five-year-old. As one might like to hope that these styles were mistakenly created by the individual, it is clear that they are intended, whether for shock value or for personal satisfaction. It seems as though in places such as Harajuku, the more Ã¢â¬Å"unique,Ã¢â¬ the better. While Miyake seemed to have far reaching consequences for Japanese identity on the international level, KawakuboÃ¢â¬â¢s constant questioning of societal norms helped foster individual deviations, thereby creating a new identity which, ironically enough, is not limited to or by itself.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Analyzes the relationship between natural selection and behavior and mental processes B. Focuses on personal growth, reaching our highest potential, and self-actualization C. Examines how physiology and biology interact with the environment to impact and determine our behavior and mental processes D. Holds that our unconscious processes determine our behaviors and how they are expressed in our personality E. Emphasizes the way that our behavior and mental processes are impacted by social and cultural components in our environment F. Believes that the field of psychology should focus on objective behaviors that are observable and measurable G. Stresses the importance of internal processes of thought that impact the way that we think, know, remember, reason, make decisions, and communicate 1.cognitive functioning. ___________________ 2.A part of the brain that belongs to the limbic system and is responsible for processing new memories. ________________ The portion of the brain involved in intricate The part of the brain located in the temporal lobe that is responsible for our emotional response. ________________ 3. 4.A structure that is known to be a key relay station for sensory information. ________________ 5.An area of the cerebral cortex involved in organizing, controlling, directing, and performing motor functions. ________________ 6.A part of the brain located in the back of the cerebral cortex that 7.The part of the brain that is highly involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system and pituitary hormone production and is also responsible for the Ã¢â¬Å"fight-or is responsible for processing visual information. ________________-flightÃ¢â¬ response. ________________ 8.The part of the brain that is located at the base of the skull and is responsible for the development and coordination of movement. ________________ 9.The part of the brain that is divided into left and right hemispheres, as well as four lobes. ________________
Monday, September 16, 2019
Which, if any, of the three social media plans should Foley pursue? Why? oI would suggest that Foley pursue advertising on all three social media outlets proposed. They are all good places to reach their target demographic and the cost isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that high to leverage those outlets. Their buyers are social media users and they should try to reach them there. I would suggest running all three for a year and see which are return best and then she could re-evaluate from there. What benefits would Foley gain from each of the three social media plans? What risks does each entail? How can Foley better reap the benefits and mitigate the risks of each of the programs? oThe benefit of being in the social media plan is that UnME would have a presence where their target market goes to socialize and communicate with each other. It would give them the opportunity to interact with their customers in their world and raise the level of involvement with their customers and potential customers.The r isk is that they will not be able to engage their customers in a personal and meaningful manner, which seems to be critical for successful online marketing. I would advise her to seek out several marketing plans for online engagement and really look for a firm with a proven track record with online and will focus on more than just the interface. Ã¢â¬ ¢How should Foley integrate social media into her traditional media plans? Should Foley take money out of traditional media (television, magazine, radio, Internet banner and search ads) to fund her social media programs?Why or why not? oI would recommend that Foley work with a firm to run a campaign that leverages the advantages of different traditional media in conjunction with online social media. There is still a solid (if shrinking) market in print and television so I would choose to be strategic with those dollars. But I would definitely run a marketing campaign that went hand in hand with the online media. Ã¢â¬ ¢How should Foley measure the results of her social media plans? Which media metrics are best and least suited for a Web 2. world? oIt is definitely harder to quantify the return from online marketing against. They should work with a qualified web expert to establish good metrics for measuring the campaign. Ã¢â¬ ¢Is UnME Jeans the right or wrong type of brand and/or product for Web 2. 0? Why? What advantages does the brand have in this new cultural world? What disadvantages does it have? oI think that UnME is the right type of brand and product for Web 2. 0. Their audience is younger, tech savvy, they are active online and UnMe has a unique product.They are about the experience of denim, not just the product and that is a good fit for social media. Ã¢â¬ ¢How well do the social media plans address the emerging challenges of the rapidly changing media environment outlined in the case? What can you change in the social media plans to make them more effective for UnMEÃ¢â¬â¢s target consumers? oI am not convinced that the proposed plans are the best use of social media. I like the widgets and the idea of voting for the next design, but they really need to concentrate on user experience. That is always key for online success.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Q3) Using quantitative and qualitative information, suggest which school Felix and Holly should invest in. In the case study we are told that Felix and Holly are finding it hard to decide whether to invest in a soccer school or a netball school. They can use many different investment appraisal techniques which are both qualitative and quantitative in order to identify which investment would be most appropriate or worthwhile. They need to consider the level of risk involved, how quickly the investment will take to pay off and whether the investment will be profitable. There are three main types of quantitative investment appraisal techniques that Felix and Holly could use to identify which investment is most profitable. The first investment appraisal technique is payback and this measures how quickly the investment can be paid back. Using the estimations that Felix and Holly have submitted, the payback period for the soccer school is 3 years and 4 months. The payback period for the netball school is 2 years and 8 months. This means that Felix and Holly would be better off investing in the netball school as it would take a shorter period of time to cover their cost. Another investment appraisal technique that could be used is accounting rate of return. This appraisal measures the profitability of any investment and the profit is expressed as a percentage. Look more:Ã capital budgeting examples essay For the soccer school the accounting rate of return is 8.8% whereas it is 17.6% for the netball school. The comparison between these two proves that the netball school would be a better investment as the percentage of accounting rate of return is much higher than that of the soccer school. In addition, another quantitative method of appraisal is net present value. Unlike payback and ARR, this investment appraisal considers the value of money over time. It converts all monetary values into todayÃ¢â¬â¢s values to allow for a realistic assessment of the returns of the years ahead. At 8% over 5 years, both the soccer school and netball school investments have a positive value which means that they are both worthwhile. However the value of the netball school is Ã £12,430 which is a lot higher than the soccer school value at Ã £6,950. This means that the netball school would be much more profitable for Felix and Holly as the value of the money is still greater than the soccer school. Qualitative methods of investment appraisal can also be used to identify which school would be most worthwhile for Felix and Holly to invest into. Some important factors that would need to be taken into consideration by Felix and Holly for their business are their objectives, resources available and the economy. A qualitative method of appraisal that can be used is internal rate of return. This investment appraisal allows specific information such as the return on the investment to be calculated. When calculated for the netball school, the internal rate of return is over 20% whereas the internal rate of return for the soccer school is between 16% and 20%. This means that the netball school has a higher rate of return than the soccer school. In conclusion, after using both quantitative and qualitative methods of investment appraisal I have identified that the most worthwhile appraisal would be the netball school. My reasons for this is because it has a shorter payback period which means that it would take a much shorter period of time to pay back. In addition, the accounting rate of return of the netball school was much higher than the soccer school. Moreover, the net present value proves that the value of the money invested within the netball school will be much higher than that invested in the soccer school over a 5 year period. Consequently, the internal rate of return shows that the rate of return on the investment of the netball school is higher than the return on the soccer school. Overall, all the various investment appraisal techniques that have been used have their advantages and limitations. A payback appraisal is quick and easy to calculate and can be easily understood but it does not calculate the overall profitability of the investment or consider timing of cash flows within the payback period. Whereas an accounting rate of return does take cash flows into consideration. It also focuses on the profitability of the investment and is a good source for comparisons. Its limitations are that it ignores the timing of cash flows and the value of money over time. A net present value appraisal considers both timing and size of cash flows but it is a fairly complex system to use. Lastly, the internal rate of return can be easily used to compare different investments but is also very complex to understand and use. All appraisal techniques have many limitations but they are valuable methods to consider when deciding on a particular investment. In this case all four appraisal techniques have been used to conclude that the most appropriate investment would be to invest in the netba ll school.